The PLOS / 'Blood Type Diet' Study: A Look at the Core Criteria


Peter D'Adamo



A study recently released in PLOS [1] examined whether there were any demonstrable differences in cardiometabolic markers between individuals following the 'Blood Type Diet' (BTD). The study concluded that there was no difference between individuals who were following the specific diet for their ABO blood type with high compliance, as outlined in the book 'Eat Right For Your Type,' [2] and those who were not. A subsequent press release from the University of Toronto, claimed that the Blood Type Diet theory has 'been effectively debunked.' [3]

The methodology used in the PLOS article to determine compliance was a simple system, giving one positive point for each beneficial consumed, and one negative point for each 'avoid' food consumed. The inherent limitations of this grading system are discussed elsewhere and are not the focus of this article. [4]

Instead, I chose to focus on the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the specific foods and whether these criteria resulted in an effective model of the BTD. The study's authors provided tabular information in an appendix to their article where they list the foods and their values that were included in their determination of what constituted 'compliance' with the appropriate ABO diets. [5] My analysis was performed on two tables comparing the relative values of the foods as listed in Eat Right For Your Type (ERFYT) and in the Appendix of the PLOS study. Table 1 compares the available food values in ERFYT with the the supplied values listed in the PLOS Appendix, when available. Despite the fact that ERFYT contains additional specific values for 'Beverages,' 'Spices' and 'Herbs' these categories were excluded from our analysis. Table 2 compares foods which are included in the PLOS Appendix, but for which no exact equivalent exists in ERFYT.

Methods

To produce the tables, food values from ERFYT and the PLOS Appendix were entered into an Excel spreadhseet. To insure accuracy, the data was checked by four different individuals. The spreadsheets were then exported as flat text files and a small program was written in Perl to perform basic counting functions and conditional formatting.

Analysis

Table 1: Comparison of food values from Eat Right For Your Type and the PLOS/ Blood Type Diet Study.

Jump to Table 1

A large number of foods containing values in ERFYT are missing values in the PLOS Appendix. Out of a total of 540 food values available in ERFYT (excluding 'Herbs', 'Beverages' and 'Teas'), only 74 (13.7%) show equivalent values in the PLOS Appendix.

There are a considerable number (822) of instances of foods containing specific values (being rated as either 'beneficial' or 'avoid') in ERFYT having no equivalent values in the PLOS Appendix. In these occurrences, subjects consuming these foods would not have had their effects represented in the PLOS study.

In addition, there is no equivalent values in the PLOS Appendix for a large number of the foods (281) for which ERFYT supplies at least two blood type specific values.

Finally, there are a sizable number (77) of foods for which there are values in ERFYT that differ by blood type (i.e being a 'beneficial' for one blood type and and 'avoid' for another) that were not included in the PLOS Appendix. This number is especially pertinent, because a considerable number of foods where variation by blood type might have been expected were not included in the PLOS study. When the non-ERFYT equivalent foods are excluded (See Table 2) the number of foods missing from the PLOS Appendix containing values that vary by blood type is actually greater than the total number of foods included in the PLOS Appendix (74).

Table 2: Food Values Used in the PLOS-BTD Study That Have No Equivalent Value in Eat Right For Your Type.

Jump to Table 2

A total of 37 foods are classed in the PLOS Appendix as possessing BTD values despite having no direct representation in ERFYT. This appears to have resulted from study force-fitting foods from the Toronto-modified Willet 196-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (TMW) into the food framework of the BTD. However, many of these foods are complex combinations of various single ingredients ('sandwiches'), our entire categories of foods ('beans'). These ‘lumped categories’ often possess unknown BTD values, or contain individual foods with specific BTD values that contradict the values assigned to the total category by the PLOS authors.

There are several assumptions about the nature of these complex foods which likely lead to error. For example, 'mac and cheese' is listed as 'neutral' for blood types A, B and AB in the PLOS Appendix, despite the fact that the dish is almost universally prepared with processed American cheese, which is clearly indicated in ERFYT as an 'avoid.' Pizza is listed as a 'neutral' for blood type A, when in fact pizza is almost always prepared with tomato sauce, clearly indicated as an 'avoid' for this blood type. 'Hamburger' is listed in the PLOS Study as 'beneficial' for type O, when in fact hamburgers are universally served on a wheat bun. Wheat is clearly listed as an 'avoid' for blood type O in ERFYT.

Many of the PLOS Appendix foods listed in Table 2 are lumped categories, including 'tropical fruits', 'cooked breakfast cereal', 'sandwiches', 'mixed vegetables', 'grains, other', 'beans', etc. These generalizations would have the effect of negating many of the BTD-specific food values, in particular the blood type specific lectin reactions. For example, the generalized category 'beans' are listed as 'beneficial' for blood type A in the PLOS Appendix, when in fact lima beans, in particular, contain a known hemagglutinating lectin specific for that blood type. [6]

Finally, the default method of preparation used to produce many of the foods listed in the PLOS Appendix directly contravene specific instructions in ERFYT for their preparation. These include 'potato chips', 'processed meats' and 'french fries'.

Discussion

The PLOS Study was a retrospective study using inclusion criteria from a pre-existing food categorization scheme (the Toronto-modified Willet 196-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire). It appears that if a food existed in both the ERFYT and the TMW it was included in the study. Analysis showed that when a direct match could be made the PLOS Appendix values do accurately reflect the BTD values in ERFYT. However, as can be easily seen from the following pie chart, the total number of foods for which a correlation exists between the values in ERFYT and the PLOS Appendix is quite low (77/540; 13.7%).


Chart 1. Percentage of the BTD food values reflected in PLOS/BTD study (purple) as a percentage of the total number of possible food values available in ERFYT (green).


Perhaps more concerning are the foods for which no equivalent value exists in ERFYT yet manage to have assigned values in the PLOS Appendix. In these circumstances, it appears that the PLOS authors chose to stick with the TMW food descriptions and shoe-horn the BTD values into the TMW. This yields a variety of questionable assertions, such as whether a category simplified into 'beans' can be given any sort of BTD value at all. In virtually all the instances of the 'food-lumping' seen in Table 2, when the TMW 'food' is actually split into BTD values the process yields erroneous conclusions. The PLOS Study does not provide any insight into the process used to determine the BTD rating for foods such as 'mixed vegetables', 'grains, other' etc. but the grading system appears arbitrary.

It is well-worth wondering how a study with such basic flaws in its design could have survived peer-review. I assume that the reviewers spent adequate time surveying the basic statistical functions used in the study, but I seriously wonder if any of the reviewers took the time to look at just how closely the PLOS study modeled the BTD; it seems improbable that any of them spent time with a copy of Eat Right For Your Type on their laps, cross-referencing its values with the PLOS Appendix. Yet this is perhaps the most basic question to ask of this study: Did it comprehensively model the BTD before reaching its conclusions? A look at the cross-comparision tabular data below clearly indicates that it did not. Because of this very basic design flaw, all subsequent analysis and conclusions are moot; they derive from an improper, innacurate, model of the subject.

That the BTD theory is currently unproven by rigorous scientific study is not argued. Hopefully in time this can be rectified by studies which accurately and comprehensively prove or disprove the hypothesis. Despite the rejoicing in certain circles (7) the Blood Type Diet/PLOS study by El-Sohemy, et al. is not that study. I call upon the editors of PLOS ONE to consider retracting this study unless they can justify the scientific basis of the concerns specified in this article.

  1. Jingzhou Wang,Bibiana García-Bailo,Daiva E. Nielsen, Ahmed El-Sohemy. ABO Genotype, ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. PLOS ONE DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084749
  2. Peter D'Adamo, Catheine Whitney. Eat Right For Your Type. Penguin-Putnam Publishers 1996
  3. 'Popular Blood type Diet Debunked'
  4. Peter D'Adamo. 'Unbelievable Facts' (Blog) and Peter D'Adamo. 'Kicking Bubbles' (Blog)
  5. Appendix S1 of the PLOS Study
  6. Sikder SK, Kabat EA, Roberts DD, Goldstein IJ. Immunochemical studies on the combining site of the blood group A-specific lima bean lectin.Carbohydr Res. 1986 Aug 15;151:247-60.
  7. NeuroLogica Blog: Blood Type Diet Disproved


  

Table 1

Comparison of food values from Eat Right For Your Type and the PLOS/ Blood Type Diet Study.

Each food listed contains values derived either from Eat Right For Your Type (2) or from El-Sohemy, et al. (1).

Foods rated as 'beneficial' for that blood type are identified by a green colored cell with the label 'B'. Foods rated as 'neutral' for that blood type are identified by a yellow colored cell with the label 'N'. Foods rated as 'avoid' for that blood type are identified by a red colored cell with the label 'A'. Foods for which there is no known value or where not included in the PLOS/BTD study are identified by a grey colored cell with the label 'n/v'.

The 'Notes' field contains the following information:

[1]. The food contains two or more specific values in Eat Right For Your Type (i.e across the four blood types, the food contains at least 2 beneficials, two avoid values, or one avoid value and one beneficial value) but is not included in the PLOS-BTD study.
[2]. The food contains at least two values which differ by blood type, but is not included in the PLOS-BTD study.

Because Table 1 is a very large table, it has been made scrollable inside of its own window.



Abalone N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Acacia (gum Arabic) A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Adzuki bean B A A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Agar N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Alfalfa sprouts B N B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Allspice N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Almond N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Almond butter/cheese/milk N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Almond extract N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Almond oil N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Aloe juice B N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Amaranth B A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
American cheese A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Anchovy A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Anise N N A N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Apple N N N N N N N N
Apple butter N B N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Apple cider N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Apple juice N N N N N N N N
Apple pectin N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Apricot B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Apricot juice B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Apricot, dried B N N N B N N N
Arrowroot N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Artichoke (domestic/globe/Jerusalem) B A A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Arugula N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Asian pear N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Asparagus N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Asparagus pea N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Aspartame A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Avacado oil N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Avocado N A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Bacon/ham/pork A A A A A A A A
Bagel, wheat N N N A N N N A
Bamboo shoot N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Banana A B A B A B A B
Barley N N N A N N N A
Barley flout N N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Barley malt B A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Barracuda A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Basil N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Bass (all) N A A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Bay leaf N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Beechnut N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v
Beef A N A B A N A B
Beet N B B N N B B N
Beet greens B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Bergamot N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Black bean B A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Black cherry juice B N B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Black currant seed oil B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Blackberry B N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Blackberry juice B N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Black-eyed pea B A A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Blue cheese A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Blueberry B N N B B N N B
Bluefish A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Bok choy N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Borage N A N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v
Boysenberry B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Bran, cooked oat B B B N B B B N
Brazil A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v
Breadfruit N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Brie A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Broccoli B B B B B B B B
Brown rice bread N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Brown rice syrup N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Brussel sprouts N B N N N B N N
Buckwheat/kasha B A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Buckwheat/kasha flour B A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Buffalo A N A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Bulgur wheat flour N A N A N A N A
Butter A N A N A N A N
Buttermilk A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Butternut N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Cabbage (Chinese/red/white) A B N N A B N N
Cabbage juice A B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Camembert A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cannellini bean B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Canola oil N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Cantaloupe N N N A N N N A
Capers A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Caraway N n/v N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Caraway N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Carbo N N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v
Cardamom N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Carp B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Carrageenan A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Carrot B B N N B B N N
Carrot juice B N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Carrots, cooked B B N N B B N N
Casein A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cashew A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cashew butter A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Castor oil A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Catfish A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cauliflower N B B A N B B A
Caviar A B N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Celeriac N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Celery B N B N B N B N
Celery juice B N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cheddar A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cherry (all) B N B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Chervil N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Chervil N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Chestnut N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v
Chicken N A A N N A A N
Chicken liver N A A N N A A N
Chicory B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Chili pepper A B N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Chili powder A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Chives N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Chocolate N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Chub N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Cinnamon N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Clam A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Clove N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Coconut A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Coconut milk A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Coconut oil A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cod B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cod liver oil N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Colby A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Collard greens B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Conch A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Copper bean A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Coriander N n/v N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Coriander N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Corn (all) N A A A N A A A
Corn muffin N A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Corn oil A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Corn syrup N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cornflakes N A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cornish Hen N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cornmeal N A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cornstarch N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cottage cheese A B B A A B B A
Cottonseed oil A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Couscous (cracked wheat) N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Crab A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cranberry B B B N B B B N
Cranberry juice N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cream cheese A N N A A N N A
Cream of rice N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Cream of Tatar N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Cream of wheat A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cucumber N N B A N N B A
Cucumber juice N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Cumin N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Currant (black/red) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Curry N B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Cusk n/v N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Daikon radish N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Dandelion B N B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Date N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Dates, dried N N N N N N N N
Dewberry N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Dill N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Dill N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Drum N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Duck A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Dulse N N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v
Durum wheat flour N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Edam A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Eel A A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Egg (chicken/duck) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Egg (goose/quail) N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Egg whites N N N N N N N N
Eggplant A B B N A B B N
Eggs N N N N N N N N
Elderberry N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Emmenthal A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Endive N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
English muffin A n/v N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Escarole B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Essene (manna) bread B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Evening primrose oil N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Ezekiel bread B B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Familia A n/v N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Farina A n/v N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Farmer Cheese N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Fava (broad) bean B N A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Fennel B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Feta N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Fiddlehead fern N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Fig (fresh/dried) B N B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Filbert (hazelnut) N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Flaxseed B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Flaxseed oil B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Flounder A B A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Frog A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Fructose N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Garbanzo bean (chickpea) A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Garlic B N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Garlic B N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Gelatin, plain A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Ghee (clarified butter) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Ginger B B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Gluten flour N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Gluten-free bread N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Goat cheese N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Goose A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Gooseberry N N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Gouda A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Graham flour N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Grape (all types) N B B N N B B N
Grape juice N N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Grapefruit B N B N B N B N
Grapefruit juice B N N N B N N N
Grape-nuts A n/v N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Green/snap/string bean B N N N B N N N
Grits N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Grouper A B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Grouse N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Gruyere A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Guava N N A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Guava juice N N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v
Guinea Hen N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Haddock A B A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Hake A B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Half & half A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Halfmoon Fish N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Halibut A B A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Heart A A A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Herring (fresh) A N A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Herring (pickled/smoked) A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Hickory N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
High-protein bread A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Honey N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Honeydew A N N A A N N A
Horse A A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Horseradish B N B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Ice cream A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Invert sugar N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Jam/jelly (from acceptable fruits) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Jarlsburg A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Jicama B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Kale B B B B B B B B
Kamut N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Kefir N B B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Kelp N N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v
Kelp N N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v
Ketchup A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Kidney bean A B A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Kiwi N N B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Kohlrabi B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Kumquat N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Lamb A B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Lecithin N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Leek B N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Lemon B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Lemon juice B N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Lentil (domestic/green/red) B A B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Lettuce (bibb/boston/iceberg/mesclun) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Lettuce, iceberg N N N N N N N N
Lettuce, romaine B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Lettuce, romaine B N N B B N N B
Lima bean A B A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Lime B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Lime juice B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Litchi N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Liver (Calf) A N N B A N N B
Lobster A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Loganberry N N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Lox (smoked salmon) A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Macadamia N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Mace N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Mahimahi N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Maltodextrin N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Mango A N A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Mango juice A N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Maple syrup N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Marjoram N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Matzo A n/v N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Mayonnaise A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Melon (bitter/honeydew) A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Melon (canang/casaba/Crenshaw/mush/Persian/Spanish) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Milk (cow) A B A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Milk (goat) N B B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Milk, skim A B N A A B N A
Milk, whole A B A A A B A A
Millet bread N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Millet/puffed N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Miso B A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Molasses B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Molasses, blackstrap B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Monkfish B B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Monterey jack A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Mozzarella N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
MSG A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Muenster A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Mulberry N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Mullet N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Multi-grain bread A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Mung bean/sprouts B A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Mushroom (abalone/enoki/maitake/oyster/Portobello/straw/tree) N N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Mushroom (common/shiitake/silver dollar) B N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Muskellunge N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Mussel A A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Mustard (wheat free, vinegar free) B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Mustard, dry B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Mutton A B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Navy bean A B B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Nectarine N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Nectarine juice N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Neufcatel A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Northern bean B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Nutmeg N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Oat bran B B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Oat bran muffin N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Oat flour B B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Oatmeal B B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Oatmeal, cooked B B B N B B B N
Octopus A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Okra B N N B B N N B
Olive (greek/green/kalamata/Spanish) A A A A A A A A
Olive oil B B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Olive, black A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Onion (all types) B N N B B N N B
Onions (Garnish) B N N B B N N B
Opaleye Fish A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Orange A N A A A N A A
Orange juice A N A A A N A A
Orange roughy n/v N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Oregano N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Ostrich N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Oyster A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Oyster plant (salsify) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Paneer N B N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Papaya A B N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Papaya juice A B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Paprika N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Parmesan A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Parsley B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Parsley B B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Parsnip B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Patridge A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pea (green/pod/snow) B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Peach N N N N N N N N
Peanut B A B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Peanut Butter B A B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Peanut oil A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pear N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pear juice N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pecan N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pecan butter N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pepper (black/white) A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pepper (cayenne/red) A B A B A B A B
Pepper (green/jalapeno/orange/purple/yellow) A B A N A B A N
Pepper (peppercorn/red pepper flakes) A N A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pepper, cayenne A B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Peppermint N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Perch (all) B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Persimmon N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pheasant A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pickerel n/v B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pickle relish A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pickles (all) A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pickles (in brine) A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pignola (pine) N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pike N B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pimiento N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pineapple B B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pineapple juice B B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pinto B A B n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Pistachio A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Plantain A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Plum (all) B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Poi N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Pollack B A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Pomegranate N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Poppy seed N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Porgy N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pork A A A A A A A A
Potato (blue/red/white/yellow) A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Potato, sweet A B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Potatoes (baked) A N N A A N N A
Prickly pear N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Provolone A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Prune B N N B B N N B
Prune juice B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pumpernickel A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Pumpkin B A A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Pumpkin Seed B A N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Quail A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Quark A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Quince N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Quinoa N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Rabbit A B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Radicchio N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Radish/sprouts N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Raisin N N N N N N N N
Rappini (broccoli rabe) B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Raspberry N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Red Snapper B N B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Rhubarb A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Rice (basmati/brown/white/wild) N N B N N N B N
Rice bran N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Rice cake N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Rice flour N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Rice syrup N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Rice, puffed N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Rice, white N N B N N N B N
Ricotta N B B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Rosefish N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Rosemary N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Rutabaga N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Rye bread (100%) N A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Rye crisp N A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Rye flour B A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Ryvita N A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Safflower N A N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v
Safflower oil N A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Saffron N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sage N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sago palm N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sailfish N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Salad dressing (low-fat, from acceptable ingredients) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Salmon (fresh) B B N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Salmon Roe N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Salt N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sardine B B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Savory N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Scallion N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Scallop A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Scrod N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Scup A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Seaweed N N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v
Semolina flour N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sesame butter (tahini) N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sesame oil N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sesame seed N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Seven-grain A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Shad A B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Shallot N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Shark N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sherbet A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Shredded wheat A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Shrimp A A A N A A A N
Smelt N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Snail (escargot/Helix pomatia) B A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soba noodles (100% buckwheat) B A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Sole (except gray/dover) A B N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Sole (gray/dover) A A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sorghum N A N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sour cream (low-/nonfat) N N B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soy bean oil N A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Soy cheese B A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soy flakes/granules B A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soy flour bread B N B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Soy milk B A N N B A N N
Soy miso B A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soy sauce B A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soy tempeh B A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soy tofu B A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Soybean B A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Spearmint N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Spelt N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Spelt bread N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Spelt flour N B N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Spinach B N N B B N N B
Spinach juice B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Spinach, cooked B N N B B N N B
Spirulina A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sprouted wheat bread, containing wheat flour N N B A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Squab N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Squash (all) N N N N N N N N
Squid (calamari) A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Squirrel A A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Starfruit (carambola) N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Strawberry N N N N N N N N
String cheese A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sturgeon N B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sucanat A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sucker N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sucrose A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sugar (brown/white) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sunfish N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Sunflower oil N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Sunflower seed N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Swiss A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Swiss chard B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Swordfish N N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v
Tamari (wheat-free) B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Tamarind bean A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Tangerine A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Tangerine juice A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Tapioca N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Tapioca N A A N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Tara N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
Tarragon N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Teff n/v A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Thyme N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Tilapia N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Tilefish A N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Tofu B A B N B A B N
Tomato A A N N A A N N
Tomato juice A A N N A A N N
Trout (brook) N A N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Trout (rainbow/sea) B A B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Trout, rainbow A A B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Tuna N N B N N N B N
Turkey N N B N N A A N [3]
Turmeric B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Turnip B N N B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Turtle A A A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Vanilla N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Veal A N A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Vegetable juice (from acceptable vegetables) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Venison A B A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Vinegar (all, except apple cider) A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Vinegar, apple cider A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Walnut (Black) B B B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Walnut (English) B N B B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Walnut oil B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Wasa crispbread (wheat free) N B B N n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Water chestnut N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Watercress N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Watermelon N B B N N B B N
Weakfish N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Wheat bran A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Wheat bran muffin A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Wheat germ A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Wheat germ oil N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v n/v
Whey A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
White flour N N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v
White/yellow bean B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Whitefish B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Whiting B N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Whole wheat bread A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Whole wheat flour A A N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Wintergreen A N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Worcestershire sauce A N A A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Yam A B B N A B B N
Yeast (baker's/brewer's) N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Yellowtail N A A B n/v n/v n/v n/v [1], [2],
Yogurt (all varieties) N B B A N B B A
Youngberry N N N N n/v n/v n/v n/v
Yucca A N N A n/v n/v n/v n/v [1],
Zucchini N N N N N N N N
Table 1 Table 2

Table 2

Food Values Used in the PLOS-BTD Study that Have No Equivalent Value in Eat Right For Your Type.

Eat Right For Your Type (2) or from El-Sohemy, et al. (1).

Foods rated as 'beneficial' for that blood type are identified by a green colored cell with the label 'B'. Foods rated as 'neutral' for that blood type are identified by a yellow colored cell with the label 'N'. Foods rated as 'avoid' for that blood type are identified by a red colored cell with the label 'A'. Foods for which there is no known value or where not included in the PLOS/BTD study are identified by a grey colored cell with the label 'n/v'.

The 'Notes' field contains the following information:

[3]. The food listed contains is a mix of two or more ingredients, each of which have different values in ERFYT.
[4]. The food listed in the PLOS-BTD study is a ill-defined complex food, comprised of a multiple number of ingredients, many of which do have BTD specific values. Thus the value used in thr PLOS-BTD study is arbitrary.
[5]. The food listed in the PLOS-BTD study is typically prepared in a manner specifically advised against in Eat Right For Your Type.
[6]. Although listed as a neutral in the PLOS-BTS study, the food as typically prepared contains ingredients known as avoids or beneficials in ERFYT.


Food Value in
Eat Right For Your Type
Food Value in PLOS/ BTD Study
Food Name AB AB O AB AB O Notes
Beans n/v n/v n/v n/v B A N A [4],[6]
Biscuits n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4]
Chicken sandwich n/v n/v n/v n/v N A A N [4]
Chicken/Turkey hotdogs n/v n/v n/v n/v N A A N [3],[5]
Chicken/Turkey with skin n/v n/v n/v n/v N A A N [3]
Chicken/Turkey without skin n/v n/v n/v n/v N A A N [3]
Cold cereal n/v n/v n/v n/v N A N A [4]
Cooked breakfast cereal n/v n/v n/v n/v N A A A [4]
Crackers n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4]
Dark bread n/v n/v n/v n/v N A N N [4]
Dark meat fish n/v n/v n/v n/v B B B N [4]
Fish cakes n/v n/v n/v n/v B B B B [4]
Flavoured yogurt n/v n/v n/v n/v N B B A [4]
French fries n/v n/v n/v n/v A N N A [4],[5]
Hamburger n/v n/v n/v n/v A N A B [4],[5]
Heavy bread n/v n/v n/v n/v B A B N [4]
Hotdogs n/v n/v n/v n/v A N A B [4],[5]
Mac & cheese n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4],[5]
Mixed vegetables n/v n/v n/v n/v B B B B [4],[6]
Muffins n/v n/v n/v n/v A N N A [4]
Other cheese n/v n/v n/v n/v N B B N [4]
Other fish n/v n/v n/v n/v B B B B [4]
Other fruit juices n/v n/v n/v n/v N B B N [4]
Other grains n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4],[6]
Other organ meats n/v n/v n/v n/v A N A B [4]
Pancakes n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4]
Pasta n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4]
Peas n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N N [4]
Pizza n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4],[5],[6]
Potato chips n/v n/v n/v n/v A N N A [4],[5]
Processed meat n/v n/v n/v n/v A N A B [4],[5]
Processed meat sandwich n/v n/v n/v n/v A N A B [4],[5]
Sandwich n/v n/v n/v n/v A N A B [4],[6]
Tortillas n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4],[6]
Tropical fruits n/v n/v n/v n/v A B B N [4],
White bread n/v n/v n/v n/v N N N A [4],
Whole grain pasta n/v n/v n/v n/v A A N A [4],