Apigenin (4’,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavone that is the aglycone of several glycosides. It is a yellow crystalline solid that has been used to dye wool. Apigenin may contribute to the chemopreventive action of vegetables and fruits. It was recently shown that apigenin induces a process called autophagia (a kind of cellular dormancy) that may well explain its chemopreventive properties, but at the same time it induces resistance against chemotherapy. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9, an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many pharmaceutical drugs in the body.
Apigenin has been shown to reverse the adverse effects of cyclosporin. Research has been conducted to study the effects of apigenin on reversal of cyclosporin-induced damage, and this was assessed by immunohistochemical estimation of expression of bcl-2, and estimation of apoptosis in histopathological sections. Cyclosporine A enhances the expression of transforming growth factor-β in the rat kidney, which signifies accelerated apoptosis. Therefore, transforming growth factor-β and apoptotic index may be used to assess apigenin and its effect on cyclosporine A-induced renal damage.
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Chong FW, Srikumar Chakravarthi, HS Nagaraja, PM Thanikachalam, Nagarajah Lee (2009). "Expression of Transforming Growth factor-β and determination of Apoptotic Index in histopathological sections for assessment of the effects of Apigenin (4',5',7'- trihydroxyflavone) on Cyclosporine A induced renal damage". Malaysian Journal of Pathology31 (1): 35–43. PMID19694312.
Zhao, G; Qin, GW; Wang, J; Chu, WJ; Guo, LH (2010). "Functional activation of monoamine transporters by luteolin and apigenin isolated from the fruit of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt". Neurochemistry international56 (1): 168–76. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2009.09.015. PMID19815045.