Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Peter D'Adamo

Ascorbate (an ion of ascorbic acid) is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and plants. Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress. It is also a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. In animals these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries.    
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Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_Enzyme Enzyme node1 GDP -D -mannose Fructose and mannose metabolism Fructose and mannose metabolism->node1 Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism->node1 node2 UDP -D -Glucose Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism->node2 node3 node2->node3 node42 UDP -D -glucuronate node3->node42 node4 node4->node1 node5 GDP -L -galactose node4->node5 node6 GDP -L -gulose node4->node6 node7 node5->node7 node10 L-Gulose -1P node6->node10 node8 L-Galactose -1P node7->node8 VTC4 node8->VTC4 node9 D-Galacturonate node19 L-Gulose node10->node19 node11 L-Galactonate node15 3.1.1.- node11->node15 node12 L-Galactose node16 node12->node16 node13 L-Galactono -1,4-lactone node17 node13->node17 node18 node13->node18 node14 1.1.1.- node14->node9 node14->node11 node84 (4S) -5 -Hydroxy-2,4 -dioxopentanoate node14->node84 node85 2-Dehydro -3-deoxy -D-arabinoate node14->node85 node15->node13 node34 3-Dehydro -L-gulonate -6P node15->node34 VTC4->node12 node16->node13 node24 L-Ascorbate node17->node24 node65 L-Dehydroascorbate node17->node65 node18->node24 node53 L-Gulonate node19->node53 node20 3-Dehydro -L-threonate node21 node21->node20 node22 L-Threonate node21->node22 node23 node23->node22 node24->node17 node24->node23 node26 node24->node26 node63 node24->node63 node64 1.14.-.- node24->node64 node66 node24->node66 node25 node25->node24 node57 L-xylo -Hexulonolactone node25->node57 node27 L-Ascorbate -6P node26->node27 node27->node15 node28 D-Xylulose -5P node29 node29->node28 node30 L-Ribulose -5P node30->node29 node31 node31->node30 node32 L-Xylulose -5P node32->node31 node33 node33->node32 node34->node33 node35 node35->node34 node36 3-Dehydro -L-gulonate node36->node35 node37 node37->node36 node38 2,3 -Diketo -L-gulonate node37->node38 node40 4.1.1.- node38->node40 node39 L-Xylonate node40->node39 node41 L-Lyxonate node40->node41 node43 3.2.1.- node42->node43 node47 node42->node47 node45 node42->node45 node93 (2) node42->node93 node46 D-Glucuronate node43->node46 node44 9 node48 D-Glucuronate -1P node47->node48 node49 node49->node46 node49->node48 node50 myo-Inositol node51 node50->node51 node51->node46 node52 node52->node46 node52->node53 node54 node54->node53 node56 L-Gulono -1,4-lactone node54->node56 node55 node55->node53 node55->node56 node56->node25 node57->node25 node58 node58->node46 node59 D-Glucurono -lactone node58->node59 node60 node60->node59 node61 D-Glucarate node60->node61 node62 node62->node56 node62->node59 Monodehydroascorbate node63->Monodehydroascorbate node64->Monodehydroascorbate Monodehydroascorbate->node65 node65->node38 node65->Monodehydroascorbate node67 node65->node67 node68 node65->node68 node66->node65 node67->node24 node68->node24 node69 node69->node61 node70 2-Dehydro -3-deoxy -D-glucarate node69->node70 node72 5-Dehydro -4-deoxy -D-glucarate node69->node72 node71 Tartronate semialdehyde node71->Tartronate semialdehyde Pyruvate node71->Pyruvate Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism Tartronate semialdehyde->Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism node73 2 Pyruvate->node73 Pyruvate node74 D-Galactarate node75 node75->node72 node75->node74 node76 node76->node72 node77 2,5 -Dioxo -pentanoate node76->node77 node78 node78->node77 node79 2-Oxoglutarate node78->node79 Citrate Cycle node79->Citrate Cycle Citrate Cycle->node79 node80 node80->Pyruvate node83 2-Dehydro -3-deoxy -L-arabinonate node80->node83 node81 3.7.1.- node81->Pyruvate node81->node84 node82 node82->node77 node82->node83 node86 node86->node83 node86->node85 node87 L-Arabinonate node86->node87 node88 node88->node87 node89 L-Arabinono -1,4-lactone node88->node89 node90 node90->node89 node91 L-Arabinose node90->node91 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions node91->Pentose and glucuronate interconversions Nucleotide sugar metabolism node91->Nucleotide sugar metabolism Pentose and glucuronate interconversions->node91 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism->Tartronate semialdehyde node92 4 node45->node44 node45->node46 node93->node46 node93->node92 (2) print "