Bisphenol A (BPA): Metabolic effects and degradation

Curator(s): Peter D'Adamo

The bisphenols are a group of chemical compounds with two hydroxyphenyl functionalities. Most of them based on diphenylmethane. The exceptions are Bisphenol S, P, and M . "Bisphenol" is a common name, the following letter refers to one of the reactants. Bisphenol A (BPA)is the most popular representative of this group, often called only "bisphenol". BPA is controversial because it exerts weak, but detectable, hormone-like properties, raising concerns about its presence in consumer products and foods contained in such products. Starting in 2008, several governments questioned its safety, prompting some retailers to withdraw polycarbonate products. A 2010 report from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) raised further concerns regarding exposure of fetuses, infants, and young children. In September 2010, Canada became the first country to declare BPA a toxic substance. In the European Union and Canada, BPA use is banned in baby bottles    
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Bisphenol A (BPA): Metabolic effects and degradation cluster_node61 !3 cluster_NEUROLOGIC NEUROLOGIC cluster_node62 !4 cluster_DEVELOPMENTAL DEVELOPMENTAL cluster_node63 TRANSCRIPTION/ POST GENOMIC cluster_HORMONAL HORMONAL cluster_DETOXIFICATION DETOXIFICATION cluster_METABOLIC METABOLIC node1 3,3'5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol A node2 1.97.1.- (1) node1->node2 node3 3,3',5,5'-Tribromobisphenol A node4 1.97.1.- (2) node3->node4 node5 3,3'-Dibromobisphenol A node6 1.97.1.- (3) node5->node6 node8 3-Monobromobisphenol A node6->node8 node7 1.97.1.- (4) Bisphenol A node7->Bisphenol A node8->node7 node9 6 Bisphenol A->node9 Bisphenol A node13 1.14.-.- Bisphenol A->node13 2 node23 1.14.13.- Bisphenol A->node23 1 node39 4-hydroxytamoxifen Bisphenol A->node39 caspase 3,apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase CASP3 Bisphenol A->CASP3 leukemia inhibitory factor (cholinergic differentiation factor) LIF Bisphenol A->LIF signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor) STAT3 Bisphenol A->STAT3 SMAD family member 1 SMAD1 Bisphenol A->SMAD1 BADGE Bisphenol A->BADGE sonic hedgehog SHH Bisphenol A->SHH node49 1 Bisphenol A->node49 node57 Heart Disease (women) Bisphenol A->node57 node52 Bisphenol A->node52 estrogen-related receptor gamma ESRRG Bisphenol A->ESRRG node11 5-Hydroxybisphenol A Bisphenol A->node11 node48 Bisphenol A->node48 node10 4-Methyl -2,4-bis(p -hydroxyphenyl)pent-1 -ene Bisphenol A->node10 cytochrome P450,family 17,subfamily A,polypeptide 1 CYP17A1 Bisphenol A->CYP17A1 cytochrome P450,family 19,subfamily A,polypeptide 1 CYP19A1 Bisphenol A->CYP19A1 DAT Bisphenol A->DAT DNA Hypomethylation Bisphenol A->DNA Hypomethylation early growth response 3 EGR3 Bisphenol A->EGR3 estrogen receptor 1 ESR1 Bisphenol A->ESR1 estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta) ESR2 Bisphenol A->ESR2 growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH Bisphenol A->GHRH GLUT4 Bisphenol A->GLUT4 Hepatic antioxidants Bisphenol A->Hepatic antioxidants luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide LHB Bisphenol A->LHB N-acetyltransferase 1 (arylamine N-acetyltransferase) NAT1 Bisphenol A->NAT1 nuclear receptor subfamily 4,group A,member 1 NR4A1 Bisphenol A->NR4A1 parkinson protein 7 PARK7 Bisphenol A->PARK7 prolactin PRL Bisphenol A->PRL retinoic acid receptor,alpha RARA Bisphenol A->RARA retinoid X receptor,alpha RXRA Bisphenol A->RXRA Sulfotransferease activity Bisphenol A->Sulfotransferease activity TGFB Bisphenol A->TGFB UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family,polypeptide B15 UGT2B15 Bisphenol A->UGT2B15 node12 4,5 -Bisphenol -o-quinone node14 1,2 -Bis(4 -hydroxyphenyl)2-propanol node13->node14 2 node25 Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) methanol node13->node25 1 node28 4-Hydroxyphenyl -4-hydroxybenzoate node13->node28 node37 2,3, -Bis(4 -hydroxyphenyl)-1,2 -propanediol node13->node37 node15 4.2.1.- node14->node15 node16 4,4'Dihydroxy -alpha -methylstilbene node15->node16 node17 1.3.-.- node16->node17 node18 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde node17->node18 node19 4'-Hydroxyacetophenone node17->node19 Benzoate degradation node18->Benzoate degradation node20 node19->node20 node29 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate node20->node29 node21 1.1.1.- node21->node19 node22 1-(4' -Hydroxyphenyl)ethanol node22->node21 node23->node22 node35 2,2 -Bis(4 -hydroxyphenyl)-1 -propanol node23->node35 node24 4-Ethylphenol node24->node23 1 Bisphenol F Bisphenol F->node13 1 node26 1.1-.- node25->node26 node27 4,4' -Dihydroxy -benzophenone node26->node27 node27->node13 node31 3.1.1.- node28->node31 node30 node29->node30 Hydroquinone node30->Hydroquinone Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation Hydroquinone->Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation node31->Hydroquinone node32 4-Hydroxybenzoate node31->node32 node32->Benzoate degradation node33 node33->node32 node34 4-Hydroxyphenacyl alcohol node34->node33 node35->node13 node36 2,2 -Bis(4 -hydroxyphenyl)-propanoate node35->node36 node38 1.13.-.- node37->node38 node38->node32 node38->node34 node39->ESRRG node40 11 node41 26 CASP3->node41 CASP3 Schizophrenia LIF->Schizophrenia Alzheimers disease LIF->Alzheimers disease glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAP LIF->GFAP interleukin 6 (interferon,beta 2) IL6 LIF->IL6 node42 2 STAT3->node42 STAT3 STAT3->GFAP SMAD1->GFAP node43 10 node44 2 peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma PPARG BADGE->PPARG node45 10 node46 1 SHH->node46 SHH node47 1 Protein folding facilitation thyroid stimulating hormone receptor TSHR node49->TSHR node50 Triiodothyronine (T3) node50->node49 node51 4 node53 2 node54 node55 4 node56 naproxen salicylic acid carbamazepine mefenamic acid node56->UGT2B15 node58 1 Parkinsons disease node59 23 node60 7 Environmental Exposure Environmental Exposure->Bisphenol A homeobox A10 HOXA10 node2->node3 node4->node5 node52->node51 node11->node12 node48->Protein folding facilitation PPARG->node45 PPARG CYP19A1->node53 CYP19A1 DNA Hypomethylation->HOXA10 ESR1->node44 ESR1 GLUT4->node60 GLUT4 Hepatic antioxidants->node59 Hepatic antioxidants PARK7->Parkinsons disease RXRA->node47 RXRA Sulfotransferease activity->node58 Sulfotransferease activity TGFB->node40 TGFB UGT2B15->node54 UGT2B15->node55 UGT2B15 GFAP->Schizophrenia IL6->node43 IL6 print "