Complement and coagulation cascades - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

The complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. All of these pathways generate a crucial enzymatic activity that, in turn, generates the effector molecules of complement. The main consequences of complement activation are the opsonization of pathogens, the recruitment of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells, and the direct killing of pathogens. Blood coagulation is another series of proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions, culminating the formation of thrombin, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin clot. Protease-activated receptors, such as those activated by thrombin, are members of G protein-coupled receptors and function as a mediator of innate immunity. The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). Kinin peptides are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes including the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, inflammatory processes, and the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning.    
Zoom out 50% Move left to zoom out, right to zoom in Zoom in 50% 100%

Complement and coagulation cascades - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node19 Kallikrein-kinin system cluster_Degradation Degradation cluster_Thrombin Thrombin cluster_Membrane1 Membrane1 cluster_Membrane3 Membrane3 cluster_Membrane2 Membrane2 cluster_node20 Alternative pathway cluster_node21 Lectin pathway cluster_node22 Classical pathway cluster_node23 Membrane 4 cluster_node24 Extrinsic pathway coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) F12 plasminogen PLG F12->PLG kallikrein B,plasma (Fletcher factor) 1 KLKB1 F12->KLKB1 coagulation factor XI F11 F12->F11 Intrinsic pathway node7 BF C3 F12->node7 PLG->F12 node1 PLAT PLAU PLG->node1 Fibrin degradation products PLG->Fibrin degradation products node8 C3-convertase PLG->node8 KLKB1->F12 KLKB1->PLG KNG KLKB1->KNG KNG->F12 Bradykinin KNG->Bradykinin serpin peptidase inhibitor,clade F (alpha-2 antiplasmin,pigment epithelium derived factor),member 2 SERPINF2 SERPINF2->PLG node1->PLG plasminogen activator,urokinase receptor PLAUR node1->PLAUR node2 SERPINC1 SERPINA5 A2M SERPINA1 node2->PLG node2->F11 node4 F9 F8 VWF node2->node4 node6 F10 F5 node2->node6 coagulation factor II (thrombin) F2 node2->F2 node3 PROC PROS1 node2->node3 thrombomodulin THBD THBD->node3 F11->node4 node4->node6 node5 F3 F7 node5->node4 node5->node6 node6->F2 tissue factor pathway inhibitor (lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor) TFPI TFPI->node5 TFPI->node6 serpin peptidase inhibitor,clade D (heparin cofactor),member 1 SERPIND1 SERPIND1->F2 FG Fibrin monomer FG->Fibrin monomer F13 F13->Fibrin monomer Clot Fibrin monomer->Clot Cross-linked fibrin polymer Clot->Fibrin degradation products carboxypeptidase B2 (plasma) CPB2 CPB2->Fibrin monomer BDKR Bradykinin->BDKR Proliferation Inflammation1 Nitric Oxide biosynthesis Prostaglandin Biosynthesis Cellular Adhesion Migration Monocyte node7->node8 C3b/Bb HF1 HF1->node7 node8->node7 complement component 5 C5 node8->C5 C3b Mediators node8->Mediators C3a node15 CR2 CR1 node8->node15 C3b/4b, C3b, C3d IF IF->node8 node9 DAF MCP node9->node8 node10 MASP1/2 node13 C2 C4 node10->node13 node11 C1Q C1R C1S node11->node13 serpin peptidase inhibitor,clade G (C1 inhibitor),member 1 SERPING1 SERPING1->node11 C4BP C4BP->node13 Membrane attack complex C5->Membrane attack complex C5b C5->Mediators C5a node12 C6 C7 C8 C9 node12->Membrane attack complex CD59 molecule,complement regulatory protein CD59 CD59->node12 node13->node8 C4b/2a node13->Mediators C4a Cell Lysis Membrane attack complex->Cell Lysis node14 C3AR1 C5AR1 Mediators->node14 Inflammation2 node17 B-Cell receptor signaling pathway Chemotaxis Muscle Contraction Phagocyte recruitment Platelet Lymphocyte Endothelial cells Smooth muscle cells node18 1 node18->Inflammation2 node18->Chemotaxis node18->Muscle Contraction node18->Phagocyte recruitment Activated Platelets Activated Platelets->F12 node16 Antigen-antibody complex node16->node11 BDKR->Inflammation1 BDKR->Nitric Oxide biosynthesis BDKR->Prostaglandin Biosynthesis Basement membrane Basement membrane->F12 node15->node17 node15->node18 node14->node18 Collagen Collagen->F12 F2->THBD F2->F11 F2->node4 F2->node5 F2->node6 F2->FG F2->F13 coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor F2R F2->F2R F2R->Monocyte F2R->Platelet F2R->Lymphocyte F2R->Endothelial cells F2R->Smooth muscle cells Inulins Inulins->node7 MBL MBL->node10 PLAUR->Proliferation PLAUR->Cellular Adhesion PLAUR->Migration Vascular injury Vascular injury->node5 Zymosan Zymosan->node7 print "