D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism

Curator(s): Erin Kinney

Glutamine is normally considered to be a nonessential amino acid. However, recent studies have provided evidence that glutamine may become "conditionally essential" during inflammatory conditions such as infection and injury. It is now well documented that under appropriate conditions, glutamine is essential for cell proliferation, that it can act as a respiratory fuel and that it can enhance the function of stimulated immune cells. Studies thus far have determined the effect of extracellular glutamine concentration on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities and neutrophil bacterial killing. | KEGG Map |    

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D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism node1 L-Glutamine node8 node1->node8 node9 node1->node9 node2 L-Glutamate Cyanoamino acid metabolism node2->Cyanoamino acid metabolism node3 Poly -y -D-glutamate node2->node3 Glutamate metabolism node2->Glutamate metabolism node4 D-Glutamine node7 D-Glutamyl -peptide node4->node7 node4->node8 node4->node9 node19 node4->node19 node20 node4->node20 node5 D-Glutamate node5->node7 node16 node5->node16 node17 node5->node17 node18 node5->node18 node21 node5->node21 node6 5-Glutamyl -D-glutamyl -peptide node7->node20 node8->node2 node8->node5 node9->node2 node9->node5 node10 node10->node1 node10->node4 node11 UDP -MurNAc -L-Ala -D-Glu Peptidoglycan synthesis node11->Peptidoglycan synthesis Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism node24 UDP -N -acetyl-muramate Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism->node24 Citrate Cycle node14 2-Oxoglutarate Citrate Cycle->node14 node12 5-Oxo -D-proline node13 node13->node2 node13->node14 node15 node15->node2 node15->node5 node16->node14 node17->node14 node18->node12 node19->node5 node20->node6 node21->node11 node22 UDP -MurNAc -L-Ala node22->node21 node23 node23->node22 node24->node23 print "