Glutathione metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Peter D'Adamo

Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide that contains an unusual peptide linkage between the amine group of cysteine (which is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine) and the carboxyl group of the glutamate side-chain. It is an antioxidant, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides.Thiol groups are reducing agents, existing at a concentration of approximately 5 mM in animal cells. Glutathione reduces disulfide bonds formed within cytoplasmic proteins to cysteines by serving as an electron donor. In the process, glutathione is converted to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), also called L(-)-Glutathione.    
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Glutathione metabolism - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node64 !q cluster_node65 !4 cluster_node66 !6 cluster_PepN PepN cluster_node67 !9 cluster_node68 !3 node1 2.3.2.4 node17 5-Oxoproline node1->node17 node18 L-Amino acid node1->node18 node16 L-Cysteine node1->node16 node2 3.5.2.9 node2->node17 node20 L-Glutamate node2->node20 node3 2 node4 6.3.2.2 node4->node3 6.3.2.2 node32 L-gamma -Glutamylcysteine node4->node32 node6 2.3.2.2 node6->node20 node23 L-Cysteinyl -glycine node6->node23 node40 R-S -Cysteinyl-Glycine node6->node40 node19 L-gamma -Glutamyl-L -amino acid node6->node19 node7 1 node8 1.8.1.7 node8->node7 1.8.1.7 node29 NADP+ node8->node29 node22 Glutathione (GSH) node8->node22 node9 4 node10 2.5.1.18 node10->node9 2.5.1.18 node39 R-S -Glutathione node10->node39 node11 5 node12 4.1.1.17 node12->node11 4.1.1.17 Putrescine node12->Putrescine node13 L-Ornithine node13->node12 Arginine and proline metabolism Arginine and proline metabolism->node13 node14 2.5.1.16 node31 Aminopropyl-cadaverine node14->node31 Spermidine node14->Spermidine node15 1 Cysteine and Methionine Metabolism Cysteine and Methionine Metabolism->node16 Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism->node16 node18->node6 node20->node4 Glutamate metabolism node20->Glutamate metabolism Glycine Cyanoamino acid metabolism Glycine->Cyanoamino acid metabolism node21 20 node26 CARP PEPB PEPD LAP3 ANPEP DUG1 node23->node26 node25 6.3.1.9 node25->Spermidine node25->Spermidine node27 G6PD IDH1 1.1.1.44 1.1.1.43 NADPH node27->NADPH node28 2 NADPH->node8 NADPH->node28 NADPH node29->node27 node30 Glutathione disulphide (GSSG) node30->node8 node32->node1 node33 1.8.1.13 node32->node33 node5 6.3.2.3 node32->node5 node34 Bis -gamma -glutamylcysteine node33->node34 node35 2 node36 TXNDC12 1.11.1.12 1.8.3.3 1.11.1.9 node36->node30 node36->node35 TXNDC12~1.11.1.12~1.8.3.3~1.11.1.9 node37 1.8.4.1 1.8.4.4 2.8.1.3 1.8.5.1 1.5.4.1 1.8.4.3 node37->node30 Spermine node38 2.5.1.22 node38->Spermine RX RX->node10 node39->node6 node40->node26 node41 R-S -Cysteine node43 2.3.1.80 node41->node43 node42 Acetyl -Co -A node42->node43 Mercapturic acid node43->Mercapturic acid node44 1 Cystathionine Cystathionine->node44 Cystathionine Cystathionine->node16 node45 4.2.1.22 node45->Cystathionine node46 7 node47 S-Adenosyl -L-homocysteine node48 3.3.1.1 node47->node48 Homocysteine node48->Homocysteine node49 S-Adenosyl -L-methionine phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase PEMT node49->PEMT Epigenetic gene modification node49->Epigenetic gene modification PEMT->node47 Phosphatidylcholine PEMT->Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylethanolamine->PEMT methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NAD(P)H) MTHFR Methionine MTHFR->Methionine Tetrahydrofolate MTHFR->Tetrahydrofolate node50 2.5.1.6 Methionine->node50 node50->node49 node51 1 node52 2.1.1.5 node52->Methionine node52->node51 2.1.1.5 Dimethylglycine node52->Dimethylglycine node53 1 Betaine Betaine->node52 Betaine->node53 Betaine node54 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate node54->MTHFR node55 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate node56 1.5.1.20 node55->node56 Tetrahydrofolate->node55 node56->node54 node57 CDP-Choline node57->Phosphatidylcholine node58 2.7.7.15 node58->node57 Phosphorylcholine Phosphorylcholine->node58 node59 2.7.1.32 node59->Phosphorylcholine Choline Choline->node59 node60 1.1.3.17 Choline->node60 node61 1.2.1.8 Choline->node61 node60->Betaine node61->Betaine Protein glutathionylation tumor necrosis factor TNF Protein glutathionylation->TNF node62 21 TNF->node62 TNF Apoptosis TNF->Apoptosis glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) GLRX GLRX->Protein glutathionylation node63 4 Prostaglandin E2 Prostaglandin E2->node63 Prostaglandin E2 node22->node6 node22->node10 node22->node21 Glutathione (GSH) node22->node36 node22->node37 node22->GLRX node22->Prostaglandin E2 node19->node1 node16->node4 node16->Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism Spermidine->node15 Spermidine Spermidine->node38 Homocysteine->node45 Homocysteine->node46 Homocysteine Homocysteine->MTHFR Homocysteine->node52 node24 3.5.1.78 node24->node22 node24->Spermidine Putrescine->node14 node5->Glycine node5->node22 node5->node19 node26->Glycine node26->Glycine node26->node41 node26->node16 Cadaverine Cadaverine->node14 print "
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