Glycerophospholipid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

Glycerol is the backbone of the fundamental phospholipids used as the self-assembling units of lipid membranes. It is interesting that both enantiomeric glycerol configurations appear in nature. The metabolic intermediate for all glycerophospholipids is phosphatidic acid (1,2-diacylglycerol-3-phosphate). Lysophosphatidic acid, which lacks the acyl chain in the 2-position, is an important cellular messenger. Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is the most abundant phospholipid in animal and plant tissues. Phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) is an abundant phospholipid in microbial, plant, and animal cells. Phosphatidylglycerol has important functions in lung surfactants, chloroplasts, and bacterial membranes and is a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of cardiolipin. Phosphatidylserine is involved in biological processes including apoptosis, blood coagulation, and activation of protein kinase C. It can be found in plasma membranes and other membranes of animals, plants, and microorganisms. A class of phospholipids with a high rate of metabolism is the phosphatidylinositols which have varying degrees of phosphorylation in the polar head group myo-inositol. The metabolic conversion of phosphatidylinositols to diacylglycerols and inositol phosphates is important in the regulation of vital cellular functions such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and in anchoring proteins via a glycosyl-bridge to the plasma membrane.    
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Glycerophospholipid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human) Glycerone phosphate Glycerolipid metabolism Glycerone phosphate->Glycerolipid metabolism node5 Glycerone phosphate->node5 Glycerolipid metabolism->Glycerone phosphate node1 node1->Glycerone phosphate node6 sn-Glycerol 3 -phosphate node1->node6 node2 node2->Glycerone phosphate node2->node6 node3 node3->Glycerone phosphate node3->node6 node4 node4->Glycerone phosphate node4->node6 node14 1-Acylglycerone 3 -phosphate node5->node14 node7 node6->node7 node12 node6->node12 node13 2.3.1.- node6->node13 node9 CDP-glycerol node7->node9 node8 node8->node6 node9->node8 node10 Acyl-Coa node10->node12 node10->node13 node18 node10->node18 node19 node10->node19 node11 1 node12->node11 node16 1-Acyl -sn-glycerol 3 -phosphate node12->node16 node17 2-Acyl -sn-glycerol 3 -phosphate node13->node17 node15 node14->node15 node15->node16 node16->node19 node17->node18 node20 1,2 -Diacyl -sn-glycerol 3 -phosphate node18->node20 node19->node20 node22 node20->node22 node24 node20->node24 node21 node21->node20 node38 1,2 -Diacyl -sn-glycerol node22->node38 node23 node23->node20 node30 CDP -diacyl -glycerol node24->node30 node25 node25->node20 node26 1-Acyl -sn-glycero -3-phosphoinositol LPIAT node26->LPIAT node28 Phosphotidyl -1D -myo-inositol LPIAT->node28 node27 node27->node26 node28->node27 Inositol phosphate metabolism node28->Inositol phosphate metabolism node31 GPI-anchor biosynthesis node28->node31 node29 node29->node28 node30->node25 node30->node29 Cls node30->Cls node32 node30->node32 node39 node30->node39 node40 node30->node40 LCLAT Cardiolipin LCLAT->Cardiolipin Monolysocardiolipin Monolysocardiolipin->LCLAT CLD1 Cardiolipin->CLD1 Cls->Cardiolipin node34 Phosphatidyl-glycerophosphate node32->node34 node33 node35 Phosphatidyl-glycerol node33->node35 node34->node33 node35->Cls node36 Aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol node35->node36 node37 node35->node37 node37->node38 node38->node23 node53 node38->node53 BTA1 node38->BTA1 BtaA node38->BtaA node54 node38->node54 LPGAT LPGAT->node35 Lysophosphatidylglycerol Lysophosphatidylglycerol->LPGAT CLD1->Monolysocardiolipin node41 Phosphatidyl -L -serine node39->node41 node47 Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin) node40->node47 node43 node41->node43 node45 node41->node45 phosphatidylserine synthase 1 PTDSS1 PTDSS1->node41 node42 1-Acyl -sn-glycero -3-phosphoserine LPSAT node42->LPSAT LPSAT->node41 node52 Phosphatidyl-ethanolamine node43->node52 node44 node44->node41 node46 2-Acyl -sn-glycero -3-phosphoserine node45->node46 node59 2-Acyl -sn-glycero -3-phosphocholine node45->node59 node83 2-Acyl -sn-glycero -3-phosphoethanolamine node45->node83 node47->node21 node47->node37 node47->PTDSS1 node47->node45 node55 node47->node55 node56 node47->node56 node48 node48->node47 node49 Dimethyl -phosphatidyl -ethanolamine node48->node49 node49->node48 node50 Monomethyl -phosphatidyl -ethanolamine node50->node48 node51 node51->node50 node52->node21 node52->node37 node52->node44 node52->node45 node52->node51 node52->node56 node53->node47 DGHS BTA1->DGHS DGTS BTA1->DGTS BtaA->DGHS DGHS->BTA1 BtaB DGHS->BtaB node54->node52 BtaB->DGTS node58 1-Acyl -sn-glycero -3-phosphocholine node55->node58 node56->node58 node81 1-Acyl -sn-glycero -3-phosphoethanolamine node56->node81 LPCAT node57 node57->node47 node58->LPCAT node60 node58->node60 node59->node57 node59->node60 node71 sn-glycero -3-Phosphocholine node60->node71 node84 sn-glycero -3-Phospho -ethanolamine node60->node84 node61 node61->node6 Choline node61->Choline node62 node62->node6 node62->Choline node66 Choline->node66 node68 Choline->node68 node63 CDP-choline node63->node53 node64 node64->node63 node65 Phospho-choline node65->node64 node67 node65->node67 node66->node65 node67->Choline Ethanolamine node67->Ethanolamine node70 O-Acetylcholine node68->node70 node69 node69->Choline node70->node69 node71->node61 node71->node62 node72 node72->node65 node73 Phosphodimethyl-ethanolamine node72->node73 node74 N-Methylethanol -amine phosphate node72->node74 node73->node72 node74->node72 node75 Phospho-ethanolamine node75->node67 node75->node72 node80 node75->node80 node76 CDP-ethanolamine node76->node54 node77 node76->node77 node78 L-Serine -phospho-ethanolamine node77->node78 node79 node78->node79 node79->node75 node80->node76 node81->node60 LPEAT node81->LPEAT LPEAT->node52 node82 node82->node52 node83->node60 node83->node82 node84->node61 node84->node62 node86 Ethanolamine->node86 node85 node85->Ethanolamine Acetaldehyde node85->Acetaldehyde Glycolysis Acetaldehyde->Glycolysis node89 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens Acetaldehyde->node89 node86->node75 node87 4.3.3.- node87->Ethanolamine node87->Acetaldehyde Diethanolamine node87->Diethanolamine Triethanolamine Triethanolamine->node87 Diethanolamine->node87 node88 Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism node88->node52 print "