Hormesis and adaptive cellular stress response pathways - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Peter D'Adamo

Hormesis (from Greek hórmēsis "rapid motion, eagerness," from ancient Greek hormáein "to set in motion, impel, urge on") is the term for generally favorable biological responses to low exposures to toxins and other stressors. A pollutant or toxin showing hormesis thus has the opposite effect in small doses as in large doses. A related concept is Mithridatism, which refers to the willful exposure to toxins in an attempt to develop immunity against them. Hormetics is the term proposed for the study and science of hormesis. In toxicology, hormesis is a dose response phenomenon characterized by a low dose stimulation, high dose inhibition, resulting in either a J-shaped or an inverted U-shaped dose response. Such environmental factors that would seem to produce positive responses have also been termed "eustress."    
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Hormesis and adaptive cellular stress response pathways - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node27 Cell Membrane cluster_Nucleus Nucleus Resveratrol sirtuin 1 SIRT1 Resveratrol ->SIRT1 node8 Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) SIRT1->node8 node10 FOXO3 (2) SIRT1->node10 Acetylcholine GPCR Acetylcholine->GPCR node1 1 brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF GFR BDNF->GFR nerve growth factor (beta polypeptide) NGF NGF->GFR fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic) FGF2 PI3K FGF2->PI3K FGF2->GFR node2 2 Insulin insulin receptor INSR Insulin->INSR Glutamate NMDA Receptor Glutamate->NMDA Receptor node3 Ca2+ MAPK Signaling Pathway node3->MAPK Signaling Pathway CREB node3->CREB NRF2 MAPK Signaling Pathway->NRF2 node4 7 CREB->node4 CREB node16 p300-CBP CREB->node16 Hormetic Response Hormetic Response->Acetylcholine Hormetic Response->BDNF Hormetic Response->NGF Hormetic Response->FGF2 Hormetic Response->Insulin Hormetic Response->Glutamate node5 Adverse Stressors/ Disease node5->Hormetic Response Cortisol node5->Cortisol Calorie restriction Mild Cellular Stress Calorie restriction->Mild Cellular Stress Exercise Exercise->Mild Cellular Stress Cognitive Enrichment Cognitive Enrichment->Mild Cellular Stress Mild Cellular Stress->Hormetic Response Allicin transient receptor potential cation channel,subfamily A,member 1 TRPA1 Allicin->TRPA1 Capsaicin Capsaicin->TRPA1 node6 9 PI3K->node6 PI3K AKT PI3K->AKT node7 32 NFKB NFKB->node7 NFKB NFKB->node16 node8->NFKB forkhead box O3 FOXO3 node8->FOXO3 node9 1 FOXO3->node9 FOXO3 FOXO3->node10 PLC Diglyceride PLC->Diglyceride IP3 PLC->IP3 PIP2 PLC->PIP2 Protein kinase C Diglyceride->Protein kinase C Protein kinase C->NFKB ER Stress IP3->ER Stress Unfolded Protein Response ER Stress->Unfolded Protein Response PERK ER Stress->PERK Catechins Catechins->Protein kinase C node11 10 NRF2->node11 NRF2 cur NRF2->cur Antioxidant Response Elements NRF2->Antioxidant Response Elements node12 1 kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 KEAP1 KEAP1->node12 KEAP1 SS KEAP1->SS Di-sulphide linkage SS->NRF2 Sulforaphane Sulforaphane->SS node13 10 node14 NRF2 (2) cur ->node14 Curcumin Curcumin->cur node15 29 AKT->NFKB AKT->FOXO3 AKT->NRF2 AKT->node15 AKT GR Cortisol->GR node18 21 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 BCL2 BCL2->node18 BCL2 Misfolded Protein Unfolded Protein Response->Misfolded Protein node19 2 node20 HSP90 HSF1 node20->node19 HSP90~HSF1 HSP90 node20->HSP90 heat shock transcription factor 1 HSF1 HSF1 HSF1 node20->HSF1 node21 2 HSP90->node21 HSP90 Misfolded Protein->HSP90 node25 HSP70 HSP40 Misfolded Protein->node25 Stabilization node22 HSF1 HSF1 HSF1 Heat Shock Elements HSF1->node22 node23 10 HSP70 HSP70->node23 HSP70 HSP70->node25 HSP40 HSP40->node25 node24 8 node25->node24 HSP70~HSP40 Protein Refolding node25->Protein Refolding Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis node25->Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis node26 3 HSP27 HSP27->node25 HSP27->node26 HSP27 HSP27->Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis PERK->NRF2 node17 AU-rich element (ARE) node17->Antioxidant Response Elements Antioxidant Response Elements->BCL2 Phase 2 Protein Induction Antioxidant Response Elements->Phase 2 Protein Induction GPCR->PLC TRPA1->node3 GFR->node1 GFR GR->Antioxidant Response Elements RE1-silencing transcription factor REST node10->REST TRF2 REST->TRF2 NMDA Receptor->node3 node22->HSP70 node22->HSP40 node22->HSP27 INSR->node2 INSR INSR->PI3K node14->node13 NRF2 (2) node14->node17 print "