NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains more than 20 members in mammals and plays a pivotal role in the recognition of intracellular ligands. NOD1 and NOD2, two prototypic NLRs, sense the cytosolic presence of the bacterial peptidoglycan fragments that escaped from endosomal compartments, driving the activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK, cytokine production and apoptosis. On the other hand, a different set of NLRs induces caspase-1 activation through the assembly of multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes. These NLRs include NALP1, NALP3 and Ipaf. The inflammasomes are critical for generating mature proinflammatory cytokines in concert with Toll-like receptor signaling pathway.    
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NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_Bacteria Bacteria cluster_node47 Anti-viral compound cluster_node46 Danger signals cluster_node48 Pore-forming toxin cluster_node49 Proinflammatory cytokine processing cluster_node50 Inflammasomes 3 cluster_MAPK MAPK cluster_node51 Proinflammatory cytokines cluster_Chemokines Chemokines cluster_node52 Inflammasomes 1 cluster_node53 Inflammasomes 2 cluster_node54 Xenogenous compounds cluster_node55 Inflammasomes 4 node4 1 ROS ROS->node4 ROS NALP3 ROS->NALP3 Anthrax lethal toxin NALP1 Anthrax lethal toxin->NALP1 node7 iE-DAP (γ -D-Glu -mDAP) nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 NOD1 node7->NOD1 node8 MDP (Muramyl dipeptide) nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 NOD2 node8->NOD2 node8->NALP3 node8->NALP1 SGT1 SGT1->NOD1 node10 3 NOD1->node10 NOD1 thyroid hormone receptor interactor 6 TRIP6 NOD1->TRIP6 RIP2 NOD1->RIP2 TRIP6->RIP2 caspase recruitment domain family,member 6 CARD6 CARD6->RIP2 node11 2 node12 cIAP1/2 node12->node11 cIAP1/2 node12->RIP2 +u caspase recruitment domain family,member 9 CARD9 RIP2->CARD9 caspase 8,apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase CASP8 RIP2->CASP8 TNF receptor-associated factor 6 TRAF6 RIP2->TRAF6 node17 MAP3K7 TAB1 TAB2 TAB3 RIP2->node17 node28 5 CARD9->node28 node13 3 NOD2->RIP2 NOD2->node13 NOD2 Erbin Erbin->NOD2 node14 6 CASP8->node14 CASP8 Apoptosis CASP8->Apoptosis node15 3 TRAF6->node15 TRAF6 node16 IKBKG CHUK IKBKB TRAF6->node16 +u IkB node16->IkB +p node17->node16 +p node17->node28 +p node18 24 node19 11 node20 2 node21 4 IkB->node21 IkB NFkB IkB->NFkB Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis IkB->Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis node22 32 NFkB->node22 NFkB DNA1 NFkB->DNA1 node41 Anti-apoptosis DNA1->node41 node42 Anti-microbial peptides DNA1->node42 Chemokines DNA1->Chemokines Proinflammatory cytokines DNA1->Proinflammatory cytokines DNA 2 DNA 2->Chemokines DNA 2->Proinflammatory cytokines node23 4 node25 21 node26 10 node27 2 Cell death Bacterial RNA Bacterial RNA->NALP3 node30 SGT1 (2) HSP90 node30->HSP90 node30->NALP3 node31 3 POP ASC 2 POP->ASC 2 Pyrin proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1 PSTPIP1 Pyrin->PSTPIP1 Pyrin->ASC 2 node32 2 node33 1 node34 2 node35 2 HSP90->node35 HSP90 clathrin-ordered protein COP ASC 3 COP->ASC 3 node36 2 node38 2 node39 3 Antimicrobial barrier formation node42->Antimicrobial barrier formation Neutraphil recruitment T cell differentiation Fever T helper cell polarization DC maturation Pyroptosis Antigen specific T and B cell responses node44 Toll -like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens Proinflammatory cytokine proc node44->Proinflammatory cytokine proc Flagellin IPAF Flagellin->IPAF node37 NAIP NLRC4 Flagellin->node37 node3 1 Aerolysin node3->Aerolysin LLO node3->LLO node6 3 Aerolysin->node6 LLO->node6 node5 2 node5->ROS node6->NALP3 NALP3->node31 NALP3 NALP3->HSP90 NALP3->ASC 2 Cardinal NALP3->Cardinal node9 4 node9->ROS ERK node28->ERK JNK node28->JNK MAPK Signaling Pathway node28->MAPK Signaling Pathway p38 node28->p38 ERK->node18 ERK node29 6 ERK->node29 JNK->node19 JNK JNK->node29 MAPK Signaling Pathway->node29 p38->node20 p38 p38->node29 node29->DNA 2 node43 7 node43->ROS ASC 1 CASP1 1 ASC 1->CASP1 1 caspase 5,apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase CASP5 ASC 1->CASP5 CASP1 1->node27 CASP1 1 CASP1 1->Cell death CASP1 1->Proinflammatory cytokine proc CASP1 2 ASC 2->CASP1 2 CASP1 2->node32 CASP1 2 CASP1 2->Proinflammatory cytokine proc CASP1 4 ASC 3->CASP1 4 CASP1 4->Cell death CASP1 4->node36 CASP1 4 CASP1 4->Proinflammatory cytokine proc Aluminum Aluminum->node43 node2 Amyloid-Beta node2->node5 NALP1->ASC 1 NALP1->CASP5 Asbestos Asbestos->node43 Bacteria Bacteria->Anthrax lethal toxin Bacteria->Bacterial RNA Bacteria->Flagellin Bacteria->node3 Proinflammatory cytokine proc->Fever Proinflammatory cytokine proc->T helper cell polarization Proinflammatory cytokine proc->DC maturation Proinflammatory cytokine proc->Pyroptosis CASP1 3 CASP1 3->node34 CASP1 3 CASP1 5 CASP1 5->Cell death CASP1 5->node38 CASP1 5 CASP1 5->Proinflammatory cytokine proc node1 CPPD (Calcium Pyrophosphade Dihydrate) node1->node5 Cardinal->node33 Cardinal Cardinal->CASP1 3 Chemokines->Neutraphil recruitment Chemokines->T cell differentiation Chemokines->Antigen specific T and B cell responses Proinflammatory cytokines->Neutraphil recruitment Proinflammatory cytokines->T cell differentiation Proinflammatory cytokines->Antigen specific T and B cell responses Extracellular ATP Extracellular ATP->node5 Flagellar Assembly Flagellar Assembly->Flagellin IPAF->ASC 3 node37->CASP1 5 node40 IL-1B node40->node39 IL-1B node24 IL-8 node24->node23 IL-8 interleukin 6 (interferon,beta 2) IL6 IL6->node26 IL6 Peptidoglycan Peptidoglycan->node7 Peptidoglycan->node8 Peptidoglycan synthesis Peptidoglycan synthesis->node7 Peptidoglycan synthesis->node8 R837 R837->node9 R848 R848->node9 Silica Silica->node43 TNFalpha TNFalpha->node25 TNFalpha node45 UV-B node45->node5 Uric acid Uric acid->node5 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity,alpha) CXCL1 MIP2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 CCL2 RANTES interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor) IL18 print "