One of the rational and effective strategies for chemoprevention is the blockade of DNA damage caused by carcinogenic insult. This can be achieved either by reducing the formation of reactive carcinogenic species or stimulating their detoxification. A wide spectrum of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes catalyze both phase I (oxidation and reduction) and phase II biotransformation (conjugation) reactions involved in carcinogen activation and/or deactivation. Several antioxidant-response element (ARE)-regulated gene products such as glutathione S-transferase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase, and hemeoxygenase-1 are known to mediate detoxification and/or to exert antioxidant functions thereby protecting cells from genotoxic damage. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, also known as NFE2L2 or Nrf2, is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene. NFE2L2 induces the expression of various genes including those that encode for several antioxidant enzymes, and it may play a physiological role in the regulation of oxidative stress. Investigational drugs that target NFE2L2 are of interest as potential therapeutic interventions for oxidative-stress related pathologies.