PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARalpha plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta/delta is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARgamma promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake.    
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PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node61 Liver Skeletal muscle cluster_node62 Skeletal muscle adipocyte cluster_Adipocyte Adipocyte cluster_node63 !dna cluster_Ketogenesis Ketogenesis cluster_node64 Lipid transport cluster_node65 Cholesterol metabolism cluster_Lipogenesis Lipogenesis cluster_node66 Fatty acid transport cluster_node67 Fatty acid oxidation cluster_node68 Adipocyte diff. FATCD36 FABP FATCD36->FABP FATP FATP->FABP node1 1 FABP->node1 FABP node2 1 FABP->node2 FABP node9 2 FABP->node9 node19 3 FABP->node19 Unsaturated fatty acid 2 FABP->Unsaturated fatty acid 2 node4 9-cis -Retinoic acid node7 PPARA RXR node4->node7 node11 PPARD RXR node4->node11 node16 PPARG RXR node4->node16 node5 1 node5->node7 node6 5 node7->node6 PPARA~RXR node8 2 node7->node8 PPARA~RXR Adipocytokine signaling pathway node7->Adipocytokine signaling pathway DNA 1 node7->DNA 1 Eicosanoid 1 node9->Eicosanoid 1 Fibrate drug node9->Fibrate drug NSAID node9->NSAID Saturated fat node9->Saturated fat Unsaturated fatty acid 1 node9->Unsaturated fatty acid 1 node10 1 node11->node10 PPARD~RXR node12 1 node11->node12 PPARD~RXR DNA 2 node11->DNA 2 node15 11 node16->node15 PPARG~RXR node17 5 node16->node17 PPARG~RXR node18 2 node16->node18 PPARG~RXR DNA 3 node16->DNA 3 Eicosanoid 2 node19->Eicosanoid 2 NSAID 2 node19->NSAID 2 Thiazolidine derivative node19->Thiazolidine derivative Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node19->Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node20 4 node20->node16 node21 1 Lipid metabolism node22 1 node23 1 node24 5 apolipoprotein A-I APOA1 node24->APOA1 apolipoprotein A-II APOA2 node24->APOA2 apolipoprotein A-V APOA5 node24->APOA5 apolipoprotein C-III APOC3 node24->APOC3 phospholipid transfer protein PLTP node24->PLTP node25 6 node25->Lipid metabolism node26 1 node28 7 fatty acid desaturase 2 FADS2 node28->FADS2 malic enzyme 1,NADP(+)-dependent,cytosolic ME1 node28->ME1 node27 SCD-1 node28->node27 node29 8 node29->Lipid metabolism node30 3 node31 9 CYP27 node31->CYP27 cytochrome P450,family 7,subfamily A,polypeptide 1 CYP7A1 node31->CYP7A1 cytochrome P450,family 8,subfamily B,polypeptide 1 CYP8B1 node31->CYP8B1 LXRalpha node31->LXRalpha node32 10 node32->Lipid metabolism node33 1 node34 4 node35 6 node36 1 node38 11 ACBP node38->ACBP ACS node38->ACS CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor) CD36 node38->CD36 fatty acid binding protein 1,liver FABP1 node38->FABP1 fatty acid binding protein 3,muscle and heart (mammary-derived growth inhibitor) FABP3 node38->FABP3 node37 FATP1/4 node38->node37 lipoprotein lipase LPL node38->LPL oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1 OLR1 node38->OLR1 node39 12 node39->Lipid metabolism node40 1 node41 1 node43 2 node44 2 node45 2 node46 4 node47 1 node48 13 ACO node48->ACO Bien node48->Bien CPT1 node48->CPT1 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 CPT2 node48->CPT2 CYP4A1 node48->CYP4A1 LCAD node48->LCAD MCAD node48->MCAD node42 SCP-X node48->node42 Thiolase B node48->Thiolase B node49 14 node49->Lipid metabolism Cell Survival node50 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis node51 6 node52 12 node53 1 node54 15 ADIPO node54->ADIPO CAP node54->CAP matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase) MMP1 node54->MMP1 PGAR node54->PGAR Perilipin node54->Perilipin aP2 node54->aP2 Adipocyte differentiation uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial,proton carrier) UCP1 Adaptive thermogenesis UCP1->Adaptive thermogenesis node55 16 integrin-linked kinase ILK node55->ILK pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase,isozyme 1 PDK1 node55->PDK1 ILK->Cell Survival node56 1 PDK1->Cell Survival node57 1 ubiquitin C UBC UBC->node57 UBC node58 Ubiquitination / Ubiquitylation UBC->node58 node60 1 UBC->node60 GyK node59 17 PEPCK node59->PEPCK GyK node59->GyK aquaporin 7 AQP7 node59->AQP7 PEPCK->node50 GyK->node50 AQP7->node50 ACBP->node39 ACS->node39 CD36->node39 FABP1->node33 FABP3 FABP1->node39 FABP3->node39 node37->node39 LPL->node34 LPL LPL->node35 LPL LPL->node36 LPL LPL->node39 OLR1->node39 ACO->node45 CPT1 ACO->node49 Bien->node49 CPT1->node44 CPT1 CPT1->node47 CPT2 CPT1->node49 CPT2->node46 CPT2 CPT2->node49 CYP4A1->node40 CYP4A1 CYP4A1->node49 LCAD->node49 MCAD->node49 node42->node43 ACO node42->node49 Thiolase B->node41 SCP-X Thiolase B->node49 node14 13(S)-HODE node14->node20 ADIPO->node51 ADIPO ADIPO->node52 ADIPO ADIPO->node53 ADIPO ADIPO->Adipocyte differentiation CAP->Adipocyte differentiation MMP1->Adipocyte differentiation MMP1->node56 PDK1 PGAR->Adipocyte differentiation Perilipin->Adipocyte differentiation aP2->Adipocyte differentiation node3 8(S)-HETE Eicosanoid 1->node3 Leukotriene B4 Eicosanoid 1->Leukotriene B4 Fibrate drug->node5 NSAID->node5 Saturated fat->node5 Unsaturated fatty acid 1->node5 Eicosanoid 2->node14 node13 9(S)-HODE Eicosanoid 2->node13 NSAID 2->node20 Thiazolidine derivative->node20 Unsaturated fatty acid 3->node20 APOA1->node25 APOA2->node25 APOA5->node23 PLTP APOA5->node25 APOC3->node22 APOA5 APOC3->node25 PLTP->node25 FADS2->node29 ME1->node26 SCD-1 ME1->node29 node27->node29 node3->node5 CYP27->node30 CYP27 CYP27->node32 CYP7A1->node32 CYP8B1->node32 LXRalpha->node32 node13->node20 DNA 1->node24 DNA 1->node28 DNA 1->node31 DNA 1->node38 DNA 1->node48 DNA 1->node54 DNA 1->UCP1 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (mitochondrial) HMGCS2 DNA 1->HMGCS2 HMGCS2->Lipid metabolism DNA 2->node38 DNA 2->node48 DNA 2->node54 DNA 2->UCP1 DNA 2->node55 DNA 2->UBC DNA 3->node21 HMGCS2 DNA 3->node28 DNA 3->node31 DNA 3->node38 DNA 3->node48 DNA 3->node54 DNA 3->UCP1 DNA 3->node59 Leukotriene B4->node5 Unsaturated fatty acid 2->node11 print "