PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARalpha plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta/delta is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARgamma promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake.    
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PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node52 Liver Skeletal muscle cluster_Adipocyte Adipocyte cluster_node53 Skeletal muscle adipocyte cluster_node54 !dna cluster_Ketogenesis Ketogenesis cluster_node55 Lipid transport cluster_Lipogenesis Lipogenesis cluster_node56 Cholesterol metabolism cluster_node57 Fatty acid transport cluster_node58 Fatty acid oxidation cluster_node59 Adipocyte diff. FATCD36 FABP FATCD36->FABP FATP FATP->FABP node6 2 FABP->node6 node14 3 FABP->node14 Unsaturated fatty acid 2 FABP->Unsaturated fatty acid 2 node2 9-cis -Retinoic acid node5 PPARA RXR node2->node5 node8 PPARD RXR node2->node8 node12 PPARG RXR node2->node12 node3 1 node3->node5 node4 2 Adipocytokine signaling pathway node5->Adipocytokine signaling pathway DNA 1 node5->DNA 1 Eicosanoid 1 node6->Eicosanoid 1 Fibrate drug node6->Fibrate drug NSAID node6->NSAID Saturated fat node6->Saturated fat Unsaturated fatty acid 1 node6->Unsaturated fatty acid 1 node7 1 DNA 2 node8->DNA 2 node11 5 node12->node11 PPARG~RXR DNA 3 node12->DNA 3 node13 2 Eicosanoid 2 node14->Eicosanoid 2 NSAID 2 node14->NSAID 2 Thiazolidine derivative node14->Thiazolidine derivative Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node14->Unsaturated fatty acid 3 node15 4 node15->node12 node16 1 Lipid metabolism node17 1 node18 1 node19 5 apolipoprotein A-I APOA1 node19->APOA1 apolipoprotein A-II APOA2 node19->APOA2 apolipoprotein A-V APOA5 node19->APOA5 apolipoprotein C-III APOC3 node19->APOC3 phospholipid transfer protein PLTP node19->PLTP node20 6 node20->Lipid metabolism node21 1 node23 7 fatty acid desaturase 2 FADS2 node23->FADS2 malic enzyme 1,NADP(+)-dependent,cytosolic ME1 node23->ME1 node22 SCD-1 node23->node22 node24 8 node24->Lipid metabolism node25 3 node26 9 CYP27 node26->CYP27 cytochrome P450,family 7,subfamily A,polypeptide 1 CYP7A1 node26->CYP7A1 cytochrome P450,family 8,subfamily B,polypeptide 1 CYP8B1 node26->CYP8B1 LXRalpha node26->LXRalpha node27 10 node27->Lipid metabolism node28 1 node29 6 node30 1 node31 2 node33 11 ACBP node33->ACBP ACS node33->ACS CD36 molecule (thrombospondin receptor) CD36 node33->CD36 fatty acid binding protein 1,liver FABP1 node33->FABP1 fatty acid binding protein 3,muscle and heart (mammary-derived growth inhibitor) FABP3 node33->FABP3 node32 FATP1/4 node33->node32 lipoprotein lipase LPL node33->LPL oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1 OLR1 node33->OLR1 node34 12 node34->Lipid metabolism node35 1 node37 2 node38 2 node39 2 node40 4 node41 1 node42 13 ACO node42->ACO Bien node42->Bien CPT1 node42->CPT1 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 CPT2 node42->CPT2 CYP4A1 node42->CYP4A1 LCAD node42->LCAD MCAD node42->MCAD node36 SCP-X node42->node36 Thiolase B node42->Thiolase B node43 14 node43->Lipid metabolism Cell Survival node44 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis node45 12 node46 1 node47 15 ADIPO node47->ADIPO CAP node47->CAP matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase) MMP1 node47->MMP1 PGAR node47->PGAR Perilipin node47->Perilipin aP2 node47->aP2 Adipocyte differentiation uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial,proton carrier) UCP1 Adaptive thermogenesis UCP1->Adaptive thermogenesis node48 16 integrin-linked kinase ILK node48->ILK pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase,isozyme 1 PDK1 node48->PDK1 ILK->Cell Survival node49 1 PDK1->Cell Survival ubiquitin C UBC node50 Ubiquitination / Ubiquitylation UBC->node50 node51 17 PEPCK node51->PEPCK GyK node51->GyK aquaporin 7 AQP7 node51->AQP7 PEPCK->node44 GyK->node44 AQP7->node44 ACBP->node34 ACS->node34 CD36->node34 FABP1->node28 FABP3 FABP1->node34 FABP3->node30 LPL FABP3->node34 node32->node34 LPL->node29 LPL LPL->node31 ACS LPL->node34 OLR1->node34 ACO->node39 CPT1 ACO->node43 Bien->node43 CPT1->node38 CPT1 CPT1->node41 CPT2 CPT1->node43 CPT2->node40 CPT2 CPT2->node43 CYP4A1->node43 LCAD->node43 MCAD->node43 node36->node37 ACO node36->node43 Thiolase B->node35 SCP-X Thiolase B->node43 node10 13(S)-HODE node10->node13 PPARG~RXR node10->node15 ADIPO->node45 ADIPO ADIPO->Adipocyte differentiation CAP->Adipocyte differentiation MMP1->Adipocyte differentiation MMP1->node49 PDK1 PGAR->Adipocyte differentiation Perilipin->node46 ADIPO Perilipin->Adipocyte differentiation aP2->Adipocyte differentiation node1 8(S)-HETE Eicosanoid 1->node1 Leukotriene B4 Eicosanoid 1->Leukotriene B4 Fibrate drug->node3 NSAID->node3 NSAID->node4 PPARA~RXR Saturated fat->node3 Unsaturated fatty acid 1->node3 Eicosanoid 2->node10 node9 9(S)-HODE Eicosanoid 2->node9 NSAID 2->node15 Thiazolidine derivative->node15 Unsaturated fatty acid 3->node15 APOA1->node20 APOA2->node20 APOA5->node18 PLTP APOA5->node20 APOC3->node17 APOA5 APOC3->node20 PLTP->node20 FADS2->node24 ME1->node21 SCD-1 ME1->node24 node22->node24 node1->node3 CYP27->node25 CYP27 CYP27->node27 CYP7A1->node27 CYP8B1->node27 LXRalpha->node27 node9->node15 DNA 1->node19 DNA 1->node23 DNA 1->node26 DNA 1->node33 DNA 1->node42 DNA 1->node47 DNA 1->UCP1 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (mitochondrial) HMGCS2 DNA 1->HMGCS2 HMGCS2->Lipid metabolism DNA 2->node33 DNA 2->node42 DNA 2->node47 DNA 2->UCP1 DNA 2->node48 DNA 2->UBC DNA 3->node16 HMGCS2 DNA 3->node23 DNA 3->node26 DNA 3->node33 DNA 3->node42 DNA 3->node47 DNA 3->UCP1 DNA 3->node51 Leukotriene B4->node3 Unsaturated fatty acid 2->node7 PPARD~RXR Unsaturated fatty acid 2->node8 print "