Prostaglandin II Biosynthesis and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism: Home sapiens

Curator(s): Peter D'Adamo

Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositides) of membranes of the body's cells, and is abundant in the brain, muscles, liver. In addition to being involved in cellular signaling as a lipid second messenger involved in the regulation of signaling enzymes arachidonic acid is a key inflammatory intermediate and can also act as a vasodilator. A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring.They are mediators and have a variety of strong physiological effects, such as regulating the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue.Prostaglandins are not endocrine hormones, but autocrine or paracrine, which are locally acting messenger molecules. They differ from hormones in that they are not produced at a discrete site but in many places throughout the human body. Also, their target cells are present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion (of which there are many).The prostaglandins, together with the thromboxanes and prostacyclins, form the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives, a subclass of eicosanoids.    

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Prostaglandin II Biosynthesis and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism: Home sapiens cluster_node64 !3 cluster_node65 !2 cluster_node66 !4 node1 1 Thromboxane B2 Thromboxane B2->node1 Thromboxane B2 node49 11-Hydroxy -TXB2 Thromboxane B2->node49 Thromboxane A2 Thromboxane A2->Thromboxane B2 Spontaneous node2 node2->Thromboxane B2 node2->Thromboxane A2 node31 15-hydroperoxy thromboxane B2 node2->node31 node3 15-hydroperoxy -PGE1 node5 20-hydroxy -prostaglandin H1 node6 node6->node5 node8 9-oxo -PGF2alpha node6->node8 node52 16(R)-HETE node6->node52 node58 11H -14,15 -EETA node6->node58 node59 11,14,14 THETA node6->node59 node60 11,12,15 THETA node6->node60 cytochrome P450,family 4,subfamily F,polypeptide 12 CYP4F12 CYP4F12->node6 node7 4 Prostaglandin A2 Prostaglandin C2 Prostaglandin A2->Prostaglandin C2 node9 5.3.3.- Prostaglandin C2->node9 Prostaglandin B2 node9->Prostaglandin B2 hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) HPGD node10 HPGD->node10 node11 5,6 -dihydro -15-keto -prostaglandin E2 node10->node11 node22 15-Keto -prostaglandin F2alpha node10->node22 node25 15-Keto -prostaglandin E2 node10->node25 node12 1 prostaglandin E synthase PTGES PTGES->node12 PTGES node4 PTGES->node4 prostaglandin E synthase 2 PTGES2 PTGES2->node4 node13 Prostaglandin D2 node13->Prostaglandin D2 Prostaglandin F2alpha node13->Prostaglandin F2alpha Prostaglandin D2->node13 prostaglandin J2 Prostaglandin D2->prostaglandin J2 node14 node14->Prostaglandin D2 node14->Prostaglandin F2alpha COX1 node15 COX1->node15 node16 8 Arachidonic acid Arachidonic acid->node6 node17 1.13.11.- Arachidonic acid->node17 node33 Arachidonic acid->node33 Fc epsilon signaling pathway Arachidonic acid->Fc epsilon signaling pathway node53 Arachidonic acid->node53 Arachidonic acid->node15 node62 CYP4F CYP2U CYP4A Arachidonic acid->node62 Prostaglandin G2 node17->Prostaglandin G2 thromboxane A synthase 1 (platelet) TBXAS1 TBXAS1->node2 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase,12R type ALOX12B ALOX12B->node17 arachidonate lipoxygenase 3 ALOXE3 ALOXE3->node17 peroxiredoxin 4 PRDX4 node18 PRDX4->node18 peroxiredoxin 3 PRDX3 PRDX3->node18 peroxiredoxin 5 PRDX5 PRDX5->node18 peroxiredoxin 1 PRDX1 PRDX1->node18 node19 node19->Prostaglandin F2alpha node19->node22 Prostaglandin F2alpha->node10 Prostaglandin F2alpha->node14 node20 Prostaglandin F2alpha->node20 node20->node22 node20->node25 aldo-keto reductase family 1,member C3 (3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,type II) AKR1C3 AKR1C3->node13 AKR1C3->node14 node21 Prostaglandin I2 node21->Prostaglandin I2 node29 6-keto -prostaglandin F1alpha Prostaglandin I2->node29 node27 node22->node27 node23 11-epi -Prostaglandin F2alpha node23->node14 CBR2 CBR2->node19 carbonyl reductase 1 CBR1 CBR1->node19 CBR1->node20 dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 4 DHRS4 DHRS4->node19 node24 node24->node19 node25->node19 node26 node26->node27 node28 1 node29->node28 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha node30 6-Keto -prostaglandin E1 node29->node30 prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) synthase PTGIS PTGIS->node21 node32 1 node33->node32 node34 5-HPETE node33->node34 Leukotriene A4 node33->Leukotriene A4 node36 node34->node36 node35 12 node36->node35 node37 5-HETE node36->node37 node55 15(S)-HETE node36->node55 node38 5-OxoETE node37->node38 node39 Leukotriene A4->node39 node44 Leukotriene A4->node44 node50 5,6- Epoxy tetraene Leukotriene A4->node50 Leukotriene C4 node39->Leukotriene C4 node40 Leukotriene C4->node40 Leukotriene D4 node40->Leukotriene D4 node41 2.3.2.- Leukotriene D4->node41 Leukotriene F4 node41->Leukotriene F4 Leukotriene E4 Leukotriene E4->node41 node42 Leukotriene E4->node42 node43 20-OH -LTE4 node42->node43 Leukotriene B4 node44->Leukotriene B4 node45 Leukotriene B4->node45 node46 12-Keto -LTB4 Leukotriene B4->node46 node47 20-OH -LTB4 node45->node47 node48 20-COOH -LTB4 node47->node48 node51 3.3.2- node50->node51 Lipoxin A4 node51->Lipoxin A4 Lipoxin B4 node51->Lipoxin B4 node54 15(S)-HPETE node54->node6 node54->node36 node54->node50 node56 node55->node56 node57 15-OxoETE node56->node57 node58->node6 node61 5 node63 20-HETE Prostaglandin G2->node18 node53->node54 node15->Prostaglandin G2 Prostaglandin H2 node15->Prostaglandin H2 Prostaglandin H2->node2 Prostaglandin H2->node6 Prostaglandin H2->node13 Prostaglandin H2->node14 Prostaglandin H2->node21 Prostaglandin H2->node4 node4->node3 Prostaglandin E2 node4->Prostaglandin E2 Prostaglandin E2->node6 Prostaglandin E2->node7 Prostaglandin E2 Prostaglandin E2->Prostaglandin A2 Prostaglandin E2->node10 Prostaglandin E2->node19 node62->node61 CYP4F~CYP2U~CYP4A node62->node63 COX2 COX2->node16 COX2 COX2->node15 print "