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Tyrosine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)

Curator(s): Joe Strothman

Tyrosine is found in many high protein food products such as soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds. Tyrosine can be converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). Tyrosine degradation is catalyzed by a series of five enzymatic reactions that yield acetoacetate, which is ketogenic, and the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate, which is glucogenic. The hepatocyte and renal proximal tubules are the only two cell types that express the complete pathway and contain sufficient quantities of all enzymes required for tyrosine catabolism. | KEGG Map |    

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Tyrosine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human) cluster_node117 !mel node1 4.1.99.2 Tyrosine node1->Tyrosine Phenol node1->Phenol node3 1.11.1.8 Tyrosine->node3 node7 4.1.1.25 Tyrosine->node7 node8 4.1.1.28 Tyrosine->node8 node25 1.4.3.2 Tyrosine->node25 node77 5.4.3.6 Tyrosine->node77 node79 1.14.18.1 Tyrosine->node79 node80 1.10.3.1 Tyrosine->node80 node87 1.14.16.2 Tyrosine->node87 Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis Tyrosine->Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis Tyrosine->Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis node2 Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis node2->Tyrosine node4 3-Iodo -L-tyrosine node3->node4 node5 3,5 -Diiodo -L-tyrosine node3->node5 node6 L-Thyroxine node3->node6 Triiodothyronine node3->Triiodothyronine node4->node3 node5->node3 Tyramine node7->Tyramine node8->Tyramine node9 2.1.1.27 Tyramine->node9 node12 1.4.3.4 Tyramine->node12 node13 1.4.3.21 Tyramine->node13 node14 1.4.99.4 Tyramine->node14 Tyramine->Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis node10 N-Methyl -tyramine node9->node10 node11 2.1.1.- node10->node11 Hordenine node11->Hordenine node15 4-Hydroxy -phenylacetaldehyde node12->node15 node101 3-Methoxy -4-hydroxyphenyl -acetaldehyde node12->node101 node102 3,4 -Dihydroxy -phenylacet-aldehyde node12->node102 node107 3,4 -Dihydroxy -mandelaldehyde node12->node107 node116 3-Methoxy -4-hydroxy -phenylglycol-aldehyde node12->node116 node13->node15 node13->node102 node14->node15 node14->node102 node16 1.1.1.90 node15->node16 node18 1.2.1.53 node15->node18 node15->Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis node17 4-Hydroxy -phenylethanol node16->node17 Salidroside node17->Salidroside node19 4-Hydroxy -phenylacetate node18->node19 node24 1.2.3.13 node19->node24 node32 1.14.13.18 node19->node32 node33 1.14.13.3 node19->node33 node38 6.2.1.- node19->node38 node20 1.2.1.5 node20->node15 node20->node19 Homovanillate node20->Homovanillate node20->node102 node103 3,4 -Dihydroxy -phenylacetate node20->node103 node20->node107 node111 3,4 -Dihydroxy -mandelate node20->node111 node112 3-Methoxy -4-hydroxy -mandelate node20->node112 node21 1.2.1.29 node21->node15 node21->node19 Gentisate node21->Gentisate node21->node102 node21->node103 node22 4.1.1.80 node22->node15 node23 4-Hydroxy -phenylpyruvate node23->node22 node31 1.13.11.27 node23->node31 node24->node23 node25->node23 node26 2.6.1.1 node26->Tyrosine node26->node23 node27 2.6.1.5 node27->Tyrosine node27->node23 node28 2.6.1.9 node28->Tyrosine node28->node23 node29 2.6.1.57 node29->Tyrosine node29->node23 node30 2.6.1.58 node30->Tyrosine node30->node23 Homogentisate node31->Homogentisate node36 1.13.11.5 Homogentisate->node36 node65 4.1.1.- Homogentisate->node65 node66 1.13.12.- Homogentisate->node66 node32->Homogentisate node34 Homoproto-catechuate node33->node34 node35 3-Hydroxy -phenylacetate node35->node33 node36->node34 node39 2-Hydroxy -5-carboxy -methylmuconate semialdehyde node36->node39 node56 4-Maleyl -acetoacetate node36->node56 node37 1.14.12.9 node37->node34 node51 4-Hydroxy -phenyl-acetyl -CoA node38->node51 node40 1.2.1.60 node40->node39 node42 5-Carboxymethyl -2-hydroxymuconate node40->node42 node41 1.2.1.45 node41->node39 node41->node42 node43 5.3.3.10 node42->node43 node44 5-Carboxy -2-oxohept -3-enedioate node43->node44 node45 4.1.1.68 node44->node45 node46 2-Hydroxyhepta -2,4-dienedioate node45->node46 HpaH node46->HpaH HpaG HpaG->node46 node47 2-Oxohept -3-enedioate HpaG->node47 node48 2,4 -Dihydroxyhept -2-enedioate HpaH->node48 HpaI Succinate semialdehyde HpaI->Succinate semialdehyde node47->HpaH node48->HpaI node49 1.2.1.16 Succinate semialdehyde->node49 Succinate node49->Succinate Citrate Cycle Succinate->Citrate Cycle node50 4-Chloro -phenyl-acetate node50->node37 node52 2.3.1.14 node51->node52 node53 2.3.1.- node51->node53 node54 4-Hydroxyphenyl -acetylglutamic acid node52->node54 node55 4-Hydroxyphenyl -acetylglycine node53->node55 node57 5.2.1.2 node56->node57 node58 4-Fumaryl -acetoacetate node57->node58 node59 3.7.1.2 node58->node59 Acetoacetate node59->Acetoacetate Fumarate node59->Fumarate Fumarate->Citrate Cycle node60 1.1.1.222 node60->node23 node62 Hydroxy-phenyllactate node60->node62 node61 1.1.1.237 node61->node23 node61->node62 node63 5.3.2.1 node63->node23 node64 2-Hydroxy -3-(4 -hydroxy-phenyl)propenoate node63->node64 node67 Gentisate-aldehyde node65->node67 node66->node67 node67->node21 node68 1.2.3.1 node67->node68 node68->Gentisate node70 1.13.11.4 Gentisate->node70 node69 4.1.1.62 node69->Gentisate Hydroquinone node69->Hydroquinone node71 3-Maleyl -pyruvate node70->node71 node73 5.2.1.4 node71->node73 node72 3-Fumaryl -pyruvate node74 3.7.1.5 node72->node74 node73->node72 node74->Fumarate Pyruvate node74->Pyruvate node75 2 Pyruvate->node75 Pyruvate node76 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens Pyruvate->node76 node78 3-Amino -3-(4 -hydroxyphenyl)-propanoate node77->node78 Dopaquinone node79->Dopaquinone node83 Indole -5,6 -quinone node79->node83 node86 L-DOPA node79->node86 node80->Dopaquinone node80->node86 node81 Cysteinyl-DOPA Dopaquinone->node81 Leucodopaquinone Dopaquinone->Leucodopaquinone Dopachrome Dopaquinone->Dopachrome Dopaquinone->node86 Pheomelanin node81->Pheomelanin Leucodopaquinone->Dopachrome Leucodopaquinone->node86 node84 5.3.3.12 Dopachrome->node84 node82 5,6 -Dihydroxy -indole Dopachrome->node82 Eumelanin node83->Eumelanin DHICA node84->DHICA tyrosinase-related protein 1 TYRP1 DHICA->TYRP1 node85 5,6-IQCA TYRP1->node85 node85->Eumelanin node86->node79 node86->node80 node88 1.13.11.29 node86->node88 node89 1.13.11.30 node86->node89 node95 4.3.1.22 node86->node95 node87->node86 node97 4-(L -Alanin-3 -yl)-2 -hydroxy-cis,cis -muconate 6-semialdehyde node88->node97 Stizolobate node88->Stizolobate Stizolobinate node89->Stizolobinate node98 5-(L -Alanin-3 -yl)-2 -hydroxy-cis,cis -muconate 6-semialdehyde node89->node98 node90 2.6.1.49 node90->node86 node92 3-(3,4 -Dihydroxy-phenyl)pyruvate node90->node92 node91 1.13.12.15 node91->node86 node91->node92 node93 3-(3,4 -Dihydroxy-phenyl)lactate node94 2.3.1.140 node93->node94 Rosmarinate node94->Rosmarinate node96 3,4 -Dihydroxy -phenylpropanoate node95->node96 node96->node93 node97->node88 node98->node89 Dopamine Dopamine->node12 Dopamine->node13 Dopamine->node14 node99 2.1.1.6 Dopamine->node99 node105 1.14.17.1 Dopamine->node105 Dopamine->Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis node100 3-Methoxy -tyramine node99->node100 node99->Homovanillate node110 3-Methoxy -4-hydroxy -phenylethylene-glycol node99->node110 node99->node111 node99->node112 node113 L-Nor -metanephrine node99->node113 node100->node12 node101->node20 node103->node99 node104 3 node105->node104 1.14.17.1 node106 L-Noradrenaline node105->node106 node106->node12 node106->node99 node114 2.1.1.28 node106->node114 node108 1.1.1.1 node108->node107 node109 3,4 -Dihydroxy -phenylethyl-eneglycol node108->node109 node109->node99 node113->node12 node115 L-Adrenaline node114->node115 node115->node12 node115->node99 node116->node20 Phenylalanine metabolism Phenylalanine metabolism->node19 Phenylalanine metabolism->node35 node82->node79 Melanine biosynthesis print "
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