SUBSTRATA MAIN PAGE


Lactobacillus

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Bacilli -> Lactobacillales -> Lactobacillaceae -> Lactobacillus

OVERVIEW:

Lactobacillus, is a genus of Gram-positive facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic rod-shaped bacteria. They are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group. In humans they are part of the vaginal microbiota. Many species in this genus have had their genome sequenced. Lactobacillus is a type of bacteria with multiple different species in the genus. Most Lactobacillus species in humans are considered harmless. Lactobacilli live in the urinary, digestive and genital tracts of humans. Lactobacillus is possibly effective for preventing diarrhea in children, or bacterial vaginal infections. However, it may be possibly ineffective for urinary tract infections, lactose intolerance, and yeast infections.While streptococci family bacteria (e.g. Streptococcus mutans) are the most common cause of tooth decay, other varieties of microbes can also cause dental caries. For example, although usually considered beneficial, some Lactobacillus species have been associated with cases of dental caries. Lactic acid has tooth corroding abilities, and the Lactobacillus count in saliva has been used as a 'caries test' for many years. This is one of the arguments used in support of the use of fluoride in toothpaste. Lactobacilli characteristically cause existing carious lesions to progress, especially those in coronal caries. The issue is, however, complex as recent studies show probiotics can allow beneficial lactobacilli to populate sites on teeth, preventing streptococci pathogens from taking hold and inducing dental decay. The scientific research of Lactobacilli in relation to oral health is a new field and only a few studies and results has been published. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium synthesize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from monosodium glutamate. [PMID: 26598580]

Lactobacilli are catalase negative Gram-positive microorganisms that produce mainly lactic acid as the major metabolic endproduct of carbohydrate fermentation. The most representative species of the genus Lactobacillus are known for their application in food fermentation and specific strains have been recognized as having probiotic properties. The health aspects of the lactobacilli have triggered many researchers to actively screen the many potential sources of these bacteria. As a result, an explosion of new species was observed over the last 15 years, with more than 150 validly named species early 2013. Despite the fact that many earlier described species were transferred to newly created genera (Atopobium, Carnobacterium, Eggerthia, Fructobacillus, Weissella, etc.) the genus remains heterogeneous in terms of phylogenetic and phenotypic markers. The genera Pediococcus and Paralactobacillus are intermingled with Lactobacillus, indicating that a further taxonomic subdivision of the genus is very likely, even necessary. Synonyms : Paralactobacillus

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]

Microbial Abundance Data: Lactobacillus
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.025 %
(0.185)
0.018 %
(0.066)
0.004 %
(0.010)
0.052 %
(0.477)
0.053 %
(0.331)
0.155 %
(1.018)
0.010 %
(0.065)
0.014 %
(0.073)
0.035 %
(0.166)
0.047 %
(0.551)
0.011 %
(0.067)
0.083 %
(1.034)
0.016 %
(0.095)
TAGS
Keystone Core species Type species Pathogen Dysbiosis associated Flora/ commensal Gut associated Probiotic
Leanness Obesity Skin microbiome Fecal distribution Oral microbiome Vaginal microbiome Butyrate producer Catalase producer
Histamine producer Food fermenter Amylolytic Propionate producer Nitrifying
DESCENDANTS
  • Lactobacillus acetotolerans
  • Lactobacillus acidifarinae
  • Lactobacillus acidipiscis
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus agilis
  • Lactobacillus algidus
  • Lactobacillus alimentarius
  • Lactobacillus alvei
  • Lactobacillus alvi
  • Lactobacillus amylolyticus
  • Lactobacillus amylophilus
  • Lactobacillus amylotrophicus
  • Lactobacillus amylovorus
  • Lactobacillus animalis
  • Lactobacillus animata
  • Lactobacillus antri
  • Lactobacillus apinorum
  • Lactobacillus apis
  • Lactobacillus apodemi
  • Lactobacillus aquaticus
  • Lactobacillus aviarius
  • Lactobacillus backii
  • Lactobacillus bifermentans
  • Lactobacillus bombi
  • Lactobacillus bombicola
  • Lactobacillus brantae
  • Lactobacillus brevis
  • Lactobacillus brevisimilis
  • Lactobacillus buchneri
  • Lactobacillus cacaonum
  • Lactobacillus camelliae
  • Lactobacillus capillatus
  • Lactobacillus casei group
  • Lactobacillus catenefornis
  • Lactobacillus ceti
  • Lactobacillus coleohominis
  • Lactobacillus collinoides
  • Lactobacillus composti
  • Lactobacillus concavus
  • Lactobacillus coryniformis
  • Lactobacillus crispatus
  • Lactobacillus crustorum
  • Lactobacillus curieae
  • Lactobacillus curvatus
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii
  • Lactobacillus dextrinicus
  • Lactobacillus diolivorans
  • Lactobacillus equi
  • Lactobacillus equicursoris
  • Lactobacillus equigenerosi
  • Lactobacillus fabifermentans
  • Lactobacillus faecis
  • Lactobacillus faeni
  • Lactobacillus farciminis
  • Lactobacillus farraginis
  • Lactobacillus fermentum
  • Lactobacillus floricola
  • Lactobacillus florum
  • Lactobacillus formosensis
  • Lactobacillus fornicalis
  • Lactobacillus fructivorans
  • Lactobacillus frumenti
  • Lactobacillus fuchuensis
  • Lactobacillus furfuricola
  • Lactobacillus futsaii
  • Lactobacillus gallinarum
  • Lactobacillus gasseri
  • Lactobacillus gastricus
  • Lactobacillus ghanensis
  • Lactobacillus gigeriorum
  • Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans
  • Lactobacillus gorillae
  • Lactobacillus graminis
  • Lactobacillus guizhouensis
  • Lactobacillus halophilus
  • Lactobacillus hammesii
  • Lactobacillus hamsteri
  • Lactobacillus harbinensis
  • Lactobacillus hayakitensis
  • Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis
  • Lactobacillus helsingborgensis
  • Lactobacillus helveticus
  • Lactobacillus herbarum
  • Lactobacillus heterohiochii
  • Lactobacillus hilgardii
  • Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis
  • Lactobacillus hominis
  • Lactobacillus homohiochii
  • Lactobacillus hordei
  • Lactobacillus iatae
  • Lactobacillus iners
  • Lactobacillus ingluviei
  • Lactobacillus insectis
  • Lactobacillus insicii
  • Lactobacillus intermedius
  • Lactobacillus intestinalis
  • Lactobacillus iwatensis
  • Lactobacillus japonicus
  • Lactobacillus jensenii
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii
  • Lactobacillus kalixensis
  • Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens
  • Lactobacillus kefiri
  • Lactobacillus kimbladii
  • Lactobacillus kimchicus
  • Lactobacillus kimchiensis
  • Lactobacillus kisonensis
  • Lactobacillus kitasatonis
  • Lactobacillus koreensis
  • Lactobacillus kullabergensis
  • Lactobacillus kunkeei
  • Lactobacillus larvae
  • Lactobacillus leichmannii
  • Lactobacillus letivazi
  • Lactobacillus lindneri
  • Lactobacillus malefermentans
  • Lactobacillus mali
  • Lactobacillus manihotivorans
  • Lactobacillus mellifer
  • Lactobacillus mellis
  • Lactobacillus melliventris
  • Lactobacillus mindensis
  • Lactobacillus mixtipabuli
  • Lactobacillus mobilis
  • Lactobacillus mucosae
  • Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis
  • Lactobacillus murinus
  • Lactobacillus nagelii
  • Lactobacillus namurensis
  • Lactobacillus nantensis
  • Lactobacillus nasuensis
  • Lactobacillus nenjiangensis
  • Lactobacillus nodensis
  • Lactobacillus odoratitofui
  • Lactobacillus oeni
  • Lactobacillus oligofermentans
  • Lactobacillus oris
  • Lactobacillus oryzae
  • Lactobacillus otakiensis
  • Lactobacillus ozensis
  • Lactobacillus panis
  • Lactobacillus pantheris
  • Lactobacillus parabrevis
  • Lactobacillus parabuchneri
  • Lactobacillus paracasei
  • Lactobacillus paracollinoides
  • Lactobacillus parafarraginis
  • Lactobacillus parakefiri
  • Lactobacillus paralimentarius
  • Lactobacillus paraplantarum
  • Lactobacillus pasteurii
  • Lactobacillus paucivorans
  • Lactobacillus pentosus
  • Lactobacillus perolens
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Lactobacillus pobuzihii
  • Lactobacillus pontis
  • Lactobacillus porcinae
  • Lactobacillus psittaci
  • Lactobacillus rapi
  • Lactobacillus rennanquilfy
  • Lactobacillus rennini
  • Lactobacillus reuteri
  • Lactobacillus reuterii
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus
  • Lactobacillus rodentium
  • Lactobacillus rogosae
  • Lactobacillus rossiae
  • Lactobacillus ruminis
  • Lactobacillus saerimneri
  • Lactobacillus sakei
  • Lactobacillus salivarius
  • Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis
  • Lactobacillus saniviri
  • Lactobacillus satsumensis
  • Lactobacillus secaliphilus
  • Lactobacillus selangorensis
  • Lactobacillus senioris
  • Lactobacillus senmaizukei
  • Lactobacillus sharpeae
  • Lactobacillus shenzhenensis
  • Lactobacillus sicerae
  • Lactobacillus silagei
  • Lactobacillus siliginis
  • Lactobacillus similis
  • Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis
  • Lactobacillus sp.
  • Lactobacillus sp. 66c
  • Lactobacillus sp. 7_1_47FAA
  • Lactobacillus sp. Akhmro1
  • Lactobacillus sp. BL302
  • Lactobacillus sp. NRCT-KU 1
  • Lactobacillus sp. S16
  • Lactobacillus sp. TAB-22
  • Lactobacillus sp. TAB-26
  • Lactobacillus sp. TAB-30
  • Lactobacillus sp. oral taxon 052
  • Lactobacillus sp. oral taxon 461
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A18
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A21
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A25
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A29
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A35
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A44
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A45
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A48
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A49
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A85
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A96
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A100
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A101
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A102
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A103
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A12
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A13
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A14
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A16
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A19
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A20
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A23
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A31
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A33
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A34
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A36
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A37
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A41
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A42
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A52
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A53
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A64
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A65
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A76
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A78
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A81
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A86
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A87
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A89
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A90
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A91
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A95
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A97
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A98
  • Lactobacillus sp.B AB1
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG1
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG3
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG53
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG63
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG71
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG76
  • Lactobacillus spicheri
  • Lactobacillus sucicola
  • Lactobacillus suebicus
  • Lactobacillus sunkii
  • Lactobacillus taiwanensis
  • Lactobacillus thailandensis
  • Lactobacillus tucceti
  • Lactobacillus ultunensis
  • Lactobacillus uvarum
  • Lactobacillus vaccinostercus
  • Lactobacillus vaginalis
  • Lactobacillus vermiforme
  • Lactobacillus versmoldensis
  • Lactobacillus vini
  • Lactobacillus wasatchensis
  • Lactobacillus xiangfangensis
  • Lactobacillus yonginensis
  • Lactobacillus zymae
  • environmental samples
  • INTERACTIONS
    KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Insulin resistance
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nonribosomal peptide structures
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Secondary bile acid biosynthesis
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • D-Glucose
  • Ellagic acid
  • CO2
  • α-Glucan

  • ENDPRODUCTS
  • γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA)
  • Trimethylamine
  • Lactate
  • Urolithins
  • Lactic acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Acetylcholine

  • INHIBITED BY
  • Stevia
  • Laminaria hyperborea (curvie)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Magnesium-deficient diet
  • High fat diet
  • Iron supplements [parent]
  • Glyphosphate
  • Sucralose (Splenda)

  • ENHANCED BY
  • Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI)
  • Sesame cake/meal
  • Daesiho-tang (DSHT)
  • Almonds/ almond skins
  • Resveratrol
  • Magnesium
  • Navy bean (Cooked)
  • Laminaria digitata (oarweed)

  • BIOTRANSFORMS
  • Linolenic acid (CLnA)
  • Linoleic acid (LA)

  • BIOTRANFORM
  • 10-Hydroxyoctadecanoate (HYB)
  • Cis-9 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)
  • 10‐Hydroxy‐cis‐12‐octadecenoate (HYA)
  • Trans-11 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA)
  • Cis-9 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA)
  • Trans-11 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)
  • Cis-15 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)

  • ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • Lincomycin (lnua)
  • Tetracycline (tetm)
  • Streptogramin b (ermt)
  • Lincosamide (ermt)
  • Macrolide (ermt)
  • Streptogramin b (ermb)
  • Lincosamide (ermb)
  • Macrolide (ermb)
  • Tetracycline (tetw)
  • Streptogramin a (vate)
  • Tetracycline (tets)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata9)

  • SUBSTRATA™ IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK ® OF DATAPUNK BIOINFORMATICS, LLC. COPYRIGHT © 2015, 2016, 2017 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.    |    DEVELOPER BLOG     |