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Bifidobacterium

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Actinobacteria -> Actinobacteria -> Bifidobacteriales -> Bifidobacteriaceae -> Bifidobacterium

OVERVIEW:

'Bifidobacterium' is a genus of Gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria. They are ubiquitous inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, vagina and mouth (Bifidobacterium dentium B. dentium) of mammals, including humans. Bifidobacteria are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the colon flora in mammals. Some bifidobacteria are used as probiotics. Before the 1960s, Bifidobacterium species were collectively referred to as 'Lactobacillus bifidus'. Soybean oligosaccharides increase the bifidobacateria population 2 to 10-fold in human subjects.More recently, members of the Bifidobacterium genus were shown to enhance the immune response to tumours in a manner that increased the efficacy of anti-programmed death ligand 1 (α-PDL1), an antibody that blocks immune inhibitory pathways.[PMID: 24264989] Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium synthesize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from monosodium glutamate. [PMID: 26598580]

Rods of various shapes: short, regular, thin cells with pointed ends, coccoidal regular cells, or long cells with slight bends or protuberances or with a large variety of branching; pointed, with slightly bifurcated club-shaped or spatulated extremities; may occur singly or in chains of many elements; may occur in star-like aggregates or in “V” or “palisade” arrangements. Colonies are smooth, convex with entire edges, cream to white, glistening, and of soft consistency. Gram-stain-positive, non-acid-fast, nonsporeforming, and nonmotile. Cells often stain irregularly with methylene blue. Anaerobic; some species can tolerate O2, but only in the presence of CO2 and the more recently described species, such as Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum, Bifidobacterium scardovii, and Bifidobacterium tsurumiense, can grow under aerobic conditions (Okamoto et al., 2008). Optimum growth temperature is 37–41°C, except for Bifidobacterium mongoliense, which exhibits an optimal growth temperature of 30°C; minimum growth temperature is 25–28°C, with the exception of Bifidobacterium mongoliense and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum, which can grow at 15°C and 8°C, respectively; maximum growth temperature is 43–45°C, with the exception of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum, which exhibits a maximal growth temperature of 49.5°C. Growth at 45°C seems to discriminate between animal and human strains, since most of the animal but not the human strains are able to grow at this temperature (Gavini et al., 1991). Optimum pH for initial growth is 6.5–7.0; does not grow at pH 4.5–5.0 (except for Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum, which can grow at pH 4.5) or pH 8.0–8.5. DNA G+C content (mol%): 47–67 (Bd or Tm). Type species: Bifidobacterium bifidum

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]

Blood group H-degrading activity; sialidase; β-galactosidase (B. bifidum) Blood group H-degrading activity; sialidase; β-galactosidase (B. longum subsp. infantis) [PMC 4365749] Decreased in metabolic disorders.

Microbial Abundance Data: Bifidobacterium
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.002 %
(0.012)
0.002 %
(0.010)
0.000 %
(0.003)
0.005 %
(0.021)
0.006 %
(0.042)
0.005 %
(0.020)
0.014 %
(0.114)
0.001 %
(0.007)
0.006 %
(0.028)
0.002 %
(0.021)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.003 %
(0.042)
0.076 %
(0.308)
TAGS
Keystone Core species Type species Pathogen Dysbiosis associated Flora/ commensal Gut associated Probiotic
Leanness Obesity Skin microbiome Fecal distribution Oral microbiome Vaginal microbiome Butyrate producer Catalase producer
Histamine producer Food fermenter Amylolytic Propionate producer Nitrifying
DESCENDANTS
  • Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme
  • Bifidobacterium adolescentis
  • Bifidobacterium aesculapii
  • Bifidobacterium angulatum
  • Bifidobacterium animalis
  • Bifidobacterium aquikefiri
  • Bifidobacterium asteroides
  • Bifidobacterium biavatii
  • Bifidobacterium bifidum
  • Bifidobacterium bohemicum
  • Bifidobacterium bombi
  • Bifidobacterium boum
  • Bifidobacterium breve
  • Bifidobacterium callitrichos
  • Bifidobacterium catenulatum
  • Bifidobacterium choerinum
  • Bifidobacterium commune
  • Bifidobacterium coryneforme
  • Bifidobacterium crudilactis
  • Bifidobacterium cuniculi
  • Bifidobacterium dentium
  • Bifidobacterium eulemuris
  • Bifidobacterium faecale
  • Bifidobacterium gallicum
  • Bifidobacterium gallinarum
  • Bifidobacterium hapali
  • Bifidobacterium indicum
  • Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense
  • Bifidobacterium longum
  • Bifidobacterium magnum
  • Bifidobacterium merycicum
  • Bifidobacterium minimum
  • Bifidobacterium mongoliense
  • Bifidobacterium moukalabense
  • Bifidobacterium myosotis
  • Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum
  • Bifidobacterium pseudolongum
  • Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum
  • Bifidobacterium pullorum
  • Bifidobacterium reuteri
  • Bifidobacterium ruminantium
  • Bifidobacterium saeculare
  • Bifidobacterium saguini
  • Bifidobacterium scardovii
  • Bifidobacterium simiae
  • Bifidobacterium sp.
  • Bifidobacterium sp. 120
  • Bifidobacterium sp. 138
  • Bifidobacterium sp. MSX5B
  • Bifidobacterium stellenboschense
  • Bifidobacterium stercoris
  • Bifidobacterium subtile
  • Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum
  • Bifidobacterium thermophilum
  • Bifidobacterium tissieri
  • Bifidobacterium tsurumiense
  • environmental samples
  • INTERACTIONS
    ENHANCES
  • Bacteroidales
  • Bacteroides
  • Odoribacter
  • Roseburia
  • Peptococcaceae

  • INHIBITS
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Coriobacteriales
  • Adlercreutzia
  • Collinsella
  • Porphyromonas
  • Prevotella
  • Clostridium
  • Clostridiales incertae sedis
  • Clostridiales Family XIII. Incertae Sedis
  • Blautia
  • Coprococcus
  • Dorea
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Ruminococcaceae
  • Ruminococcus
  • Dialister
  • Campylobacteraceae
  • Erysipelotrichaceae

  • INHIBITED BY
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Coriobacteriales
  • Adlercreutzia
  • Collinsella
  • Bacteroidales
  • Bacteroides
  • Porphyromonadaceae
  • Odoribacter
  • Parabacteroides
  • Porphyromonas
  • Prevotella
  • Rikenellaceae
  • Alistipes
  • Turicibacter
  • Streptococcus
  • Clostridiales
  • Catabacteriaceae
  • Clostridium
  • Clostridiales incertae sedis
  • Peptoniphilus
  • Clostridiales Family XIII. Incertae Sedis
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Blautia
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Coprococcus
  • Dorea
  • Eubacterium
  • Lachnobacterium
  • Lachnospira
  • Roseburia
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Peptococcaceae
  • Ruminococcaceae
  • Ruminiclostridium
  • Acetivibrio
  • Eubacterium
  • Faecalibacterium
  • Oscillospira
  • Ruminococcus
  • Acidaminococcus
  • Dialister
  • Phascolarctobacterium
  • Veillonella
  • Rubrivivax
  • Alcaligenaceae
  • Oxalobacter
  • Bilophila
  • Desulfovibrio
  • Campylobacteraceae
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Escherichia
  • Erysipelotrichaceae
  • Erysipelotrichaceae
  • Holdemania
  • Akkermansia
  • KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nonribosomal peptide structures
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Secondary bile acid biosynthesis
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • Raffinose
  • D-Glucose
  • Ellagic acid
  • Stachyose (soy oligosaccharide)

  • ENDPRODUCTS
  • γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA)
  • Biotin
  • Folate
  • Urolithins
  • Lactic acid

  • INHIBITED BY
  • Laminaria hyperborea (curvie)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Magnesium-deficient diet
  • High fat diet
  • Iron supplements [parent]
  • Berberine
  • High fat diet [parent]
  • Glyphosphate
  • Sucralose (Splenda)
  • Low carbohydrate diet
  • Low FODMAP diet
  • Ascophyllum nodosum (rockweed)

  • ENHANCED BY
  • Sesame cake/meal
  • Resistant starch (type III)
  • Daesiho-tang (DSHT)
  • Almonds/ almond skins
  • Jerusalem artichoke
  • Red wine
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides
  • Arabinoxylans
  • Chicory
  • Inulin
  • Resveratrol
  • Magnesium
  • Chondrus crispus (red seaweed)
  • Green tea
  • Navy bean (Cooked)

  • BIOTRANSFORMS
  • Daidzein
  • Ginsenoside Rb1
  • Linolenic acid (CLnA)
  • Linoleic acid (LA)

  • BIOTRANFORM
  • Cis-9 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)
  • Trans-11 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA)
  • Cis-9 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA)
  • Trans-11 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)
  • Equol sulphate
  • Cis-15 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)

  • ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • Tetracycline (tetw)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata1)
  • Tetracycline (tetq)

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