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Corynebacterium

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Actinobacteria -> Actinobacteria -> Corynebacteriales -> Corynebacteriaceae -> Corynebacterium

OVERVIEW:

'Corynebacterium' is a genus of Gram- positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. They are widely distributed in nature and are mostly innocuous. Some are useful in industrial settings such as C. glutamicum. Others can cause human disease, including most notably diphtheria, which is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae C. diphtheriae. Straight to slightly curved rods with tapered ends. Rods are usually short or of medium length. Club-shaped forms may be observed; sometimes ellipsoidal, ovoid or rarely, “whip handles” (see below, Corynebacterium matruchotii) or thinner rods with bulges (see below, Corynebacterium sundsvallense) observed. Snapping division produces angular and palisade arrangements of cells. Gram-stain-positive; some cells stain unevenly. Metachromatic (synonym being polyphosphate) granules may be observed for some species. Not-acid-fast (Ziehl–Neelsen stain), and no species has aerial mycelium. Nonsporeforming. All species are nonmotile. All species are catalase positive. All species are oxidase negative except for Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Corynebacterium doosanense, and Corynebacterium maris (below). Many species are facultatively anaerobic and some are aerobic. Chemoorganotrophs. Some species are lipophilic. Many species produce acid from glucose and some other sugars in peptone media. Several species alkalinize citrate as sole carbon sources, but most do not.

DNA G+C content (mol%): 46–74.

A study of 197 middle-aged patients with Parkinson disease and 115 age-matched controls found that the risk of Parkinson disease was increased in carriers of the G allele of rs356219 SNP on chromosome 4 when combined with the presence of Corynebacterium in the gut.

Type species: Corynebacterium diphtheriae

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]



Microbial Abundance Data: Corynebacterium
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.309 %
(1.178)
0.351 %
(0.707)
0.200 %
(1.562)
0.377 %
(1.265)
0.216 %
(1.013)
0.389 %
(2.408)
0.131 %
(0.798)
0.101 %
(0.483)
0.241 %
(0.364)
8.870 %
(6.468)
10.797 %
(6.967)
6.943 %
(5.968)
0.007 %
(0.048)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
  • Corynebacterium VA36-2
  • Corynebacterium VA38-3
  • Corynebacterium accolens
  • Corynebacterium acetoacidophilum
  • Corynebacterium afermentans
  • Corynebacterium alkanolyticum
  • Corynebacterium ammoniagenes
  • Corynebacterium amycolatum
  • Corynebacterium appendicis
  • Corynebacterium aquatimens
  • Corynebacterium aquilae
  • Corynebacterium argentoratense
  • Corynebacterium atrinae
  • Corynebacterium atypicum
  • Corynebacterium aurimucosum
  • Corynebacterium auris
  • Corynebacterium auriscanis
  • Corynebacterium bovis
  • Corynebacterium callunae
  • Corynebacterium camporealensis
  • Corynebacterium canis
  • Corynebacterium capitovis
  • Corynebacterium casei
  • Corynebacterium caspium
  • Corynebacterium cervicis
  • Corynebacterium cf. aquaticum V4.BO.26
  • Corynebacterium ciconiae
  • Corynebacterium confusum
  • Corynebacterium coyleae
  • Corynebacterium crenatum
  • Corynebacterium cyclohexanicum
  • Corynebacterium cystitidis
  • Corynebacterium deserti
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  • Corynebacterium doosanense
  • Corynebacterium durum
  • Corynebacterium efficiens
  • Corynebacterium epidermidicanis
  • Corynebacterium falsenii
  • Corynebacterium fastidiosum
  • Corynebacterium felinum
  • Corynebacterium flavescens
  • Corynebacterium frankenforstense
  • Corynebacterium freiburgense
  • Corynebacterium freneyi
  • Corynebacterium genitalium
  • Corynebacterium glaucum
  • Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum
  • Corynebacterium glyciniphilum
  • Corynebacterium halotolerans
  • Corynebacterium hansenii
  • Corynebacterium humireducens
  • Corynebacterium ilicis
  • Corynebacterium imitans
  • Corynebacterium jeikeium
  • Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii
  • Corynebacterium kutscheri
  • Corynebacterium lactis
  • Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum
  • Corynebacterium lubricantis
  • Corynebacterium macginleyi
  • Corynebacterium marinum
  • Corynebacterium maris
  • Corynebacterium massiliense
  • Corynebacterium mastitidis
  • Corynebacterium matruchotii
  • Corynebacterium melassecola
  • Corynebacterium minutissimum
  • Corynebacterium mucifaciens
  • Corynebacterium mustelae
  • Corynebacterium mycetoides
  • Corynebacterium nephridii
  • Corynebacterium nuruki
  • Corynebacterium okanaganae
  • Corynebacterium pekinense
  • Corynebacterium pelargi
  • Corynebacterium phocae
  • Corynebacterium pilbarense
  • Corynebacterium pilosum
  • Corynebacterium propinquum
  • Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum
  • Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium
  • Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  • Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens
  • Corynebacterium renale
  • Corynebacterium resistens
  • Corynebacterium riegelii
  • Corynebacterium segmentosum
  • Corynebacterium simulans
  • Corynebacterium singulare
  • Corynebacterium sp.
  • Corynebacterium sp. 713182/2012
  • Corynebacterium sp. NML 97-0186
  • Corynebacterium sp. NML96-0085
  • Corynebacterium sp. canine oral taxon 423
  • Corynebacterium sp. jw37
  • Corynebacterium sphenisci
  • Corynebacterium spheniscorum
  • Corynebacterium sputi
  • Corynebacterium stationis
  • Corynebacterium striatum
  • Corynebacterium suicordis
  • Corynebacterium sundsvallense
  • Corynebacterium terpenotabidum
  • Corynebacterium testudinoris
  • Corynebacterium thermoaminogenes
  • Corynebacterium thomssenii
  • Corynebacterium timonense
  • Corynebacterium trachiae
  • Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum
  • Corynebacterium tuscaniense
  • Corynebacterium ulcerans
  • Corynebacterium ulceribovis
  • Corynebacterium urealyticum
  • Corynebacterium ureicelerivorans
  • Corynebacterium uropygiale
  • Corynebacterium uterequi
  • Corynebacterium variabile
  • Corynebacterium vitaeruminis
  • Corynebacterium xerosis
  • [Brevibacterium] flavum
  • environmental samples
  • INTERACTIONS
    KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES

    ENDPRODUCTS
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   BIOFILM FORMERS   
    COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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