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Akkermansia

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> PVC group -> Verrucomicrobia -> Verrucomicrobiae -> Verrucomicrobiales -> Akkermansiaceae -> Akkermansia

OVERVIEW:

'Akkermansia' is a genus in the phylum Verrucomicrobia (Bacteria). The genus was first proposed in 2004 by Muriel Derrien and others, with the type species Akkermansia muciniphila (gen. nov., sp. nov). Akkermansia is another leanness building microbe. Scientists give it to fat mice and it alters their body fat composition, decreases body fat, improves blood sugars, lowers LPS and endotoxemia, reduces several inflammatory markers, decreases liver function tests, fixes faulty intestinal permeability, increases HDL cholesterol, decreases TGs, and even improves the signs and symptoms of fatty liver/NASH (non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis). Like Christensenella it is find in abundance in lean, non-diabetic subjects. Those with diabetes have low amounts. Weight loss and administration of the insulin sensitizing drug metformin appears to raise Akkermansia. Elite rugby players on the Irish national team who eat a 'clean', whole food, high protein diet have elevated levels of Akk. Cranberry extract which is high in polyphenols, and other flavonoid-rich foods, including green and black teas raise Akk levels. Oval-shaped cells, occurring singly, in pairs, and rarely in chains, about 0.6 µm × 0.7 µm. Gram-stain-negative. Nonmotile. Strictly anaerobic. Colonies are distinct, whitish in color, and reach maximum size on 0.75% agar plates after 6 d of incubation. Cells grow optimally at 37°C and pH 6.5. Growth is chemoorganotrophic and restricted to a small number of sugars. Acetate, propionate, and ethanol are the major fermentation products from mucin. Mucolytic in pure culture.DNA G+C content (mol%): 47.6. Type species: Akkermansia muciniphila

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072] Decreased metabolic disorders.

Akkermansia Is enhanced by a ketogenic diet in mice, and bacterial cross-feeding decreases gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity: inhibiting gamma-glutamylation promotes seizure protection in vivo. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.04.027



Microbial Abundance Data: Akkermansia
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.000 %
(0.003)
0.000 %
(0.003)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.001 %
(0.006)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.001 %
(0.006)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.437 %
(1.763)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Carotenoid biosynthesis
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nitrotoluene degradation
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Steroid biosynthesis
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

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