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Klebsiella

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Enterobacteriales -> Enterobacteriaceae -> Klebsiella

OVERVIEW:

Klebsiella is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule. It is named after the German microbiologist Edwin Klebs (1834–1913). Klebsiella species are found everywhere in nature. This is thought to be due to distinct sublineages developing specific niche adaptations, with associated biochemical adaptations which make them better suited to a particular environment. They can be found in water, soil, plants, insects, animals, and humans. They have no specific growth requirements and grow well on standard laboratory media, but grow best between 35 and 37 °C and at pH 7.2. The species are facultative anaerobes, and most strains can survive with citrate and glucose as their sole carbon sources and ammonia as their sole nitrogen source. Klebsiella species are routinely found in the human nose, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract as normal flora; however, they can also behave as opportunistic human pathogens. Klebsiella species are known to also infect a variety of other animals, both as normal flora and opportunistic pathogens. Klebsiella organisms can lead to a wide range of disease states, notably pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septicemia, meningitis, diarrhea, and soft tissue infections. Klebsiella species have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis and other spondyloarthropathies. The majority of human Klebsiella infections are caused by K. pneumoniae, followed by K. oxytoca. Infections are more common in the very young, very old, and those with other underlying diseases, such as cancer, and most infections involve contamination of an invasive medical device.

The Voges–Proskauer test is usually positive. Lactic, acetic, and formic acids are formed in smaller amounts and ethanol in larger amounts than in a mixed acid fermentation. All strains utilize l-arabinose, d-arabitol, d-cellobiose, citrate, d-fructose, d-galactose, d-glucose, 2-ketogluconate, maltose, d-mannitol, d-melibiose, d-raffinose, d-trehalose, and d-xylose as sole carbon sources. With the exception of some K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae strains, all Klebsiella strains utilize myo-inositol, l-rhamnose, and sucrose as sole carbon sources. With the exception of some K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis strains, all strains utilize lactose and d-sorbitol as sole carbon sources. No strain utilizes betaine, caprate, caprylate, glutarate, itaconate, 3-phenylpropionate, and propionate. H2S is not produced, β-glucuronides are not hydrolyzed, and l-tryptophan and l-histidine are not deaminated. Ornithine is not decarboxylated by klebsiellae strains except K. mobilis, K. ornithinolytica, and rare strains of K. pneumoniae. Most strains hydrolyze urea and β-galactosides. Some strains fix nitrogen. Occur in intestinal contents, clinical specimens from humans and animals (e.g., horses, swine, monkeys), soil, water, or on plants.

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]

Microbial Abundance Data: Klebsiella
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.003 %
(0.035)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.009 %
(0.103)
0.002 %
(0.021)
0.001 %
(0.003)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.006 %
(0.080)
0.000 %
(0.004)
0.001 %
(0.009)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.005 %
(0.024)
TAGS
Keystone Core species Type species Pathogen Dysbiosis associated Flora/ commensal Gut associated Probiotic
Leanness Obesity Skin microbiome Fecal distribution Oral microbiome Vaginal microbiome Butyrate producer Catalase producer
Histamine producer Food fermenter Amylolytic Propionate producer Nitrifying
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Atrazine degradation
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Caprolactam degradation
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Dioxin degradation
  • Ether lipid metabolism
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Fluorobenzoate degradation
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nitrotoluene degradation
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Styrene degradation
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Toluene degradation
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Xylene degradation
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • Iron supplements [parent]
  • Acetoin [parent]
  • D-Lactose
  • Myo-inositol
  • Urea
  • Acetoin
  • D-Sorbitol
  • L-Rhamnose
  • Sucrose

  • ENDPRODUCTS
  • 2,3-Butanediol
  • 2,3-Butanediol [parent]

  • INHIBITED BY
  • Garlic (allicin)
  • Pomegranate ellagitannins [parent]
  • Hyocyamine
  • Berberine

  • ENHANCED BY
  • Aspartame [parent]

  • BIOTRANSFORMS

    BIOTRANFORM

    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • Aminoglycoside (acrb)
  • Glycylcycline (acrb)
  • Macrolide (acrb)
  • Beta lactam (acrb)
  • Acriflavin (acrb)
  • Chloramphenicol (cml_e1)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata1)
  • Paromomycin (aph3ia)
  • Neomycin (aph3ia)
  • Kanamycin (aph3ia)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3ia)
  • Lividomycin (aph3ia)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3ia)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa10)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa10)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrb)
  • Tetracycline (tetd)
  • Astromicin (aac3ia)
  • Sisomicin (aac3ia)
  • Gentamicin (aac3ia)
  • Sulfonamide (sul1)
  • Chloramphenicol (cml_e3)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra19)
  • Penicillin (bl2a_okp)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_shv2)
  • E cephalosproin (bl2be_shv2)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_shv2)
  • N cephalosproin (bl2be_shv2)
  • Erythromycin (erea)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra12)
  • Spectinomycin (ant3ia)
  • Streptomycin (ant3ia)
  • Tobramycin (aac6ia)
  • Netilmicin (aac6ia)
  • Isepamicin (aac6ia)
  • Amikacin (aac6ia)
  • Sisomicin (aac6ia)
  • Dibekacin (aac6ia)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_fox)
  • Tobramycin (aac6ib)
  • Netilmicin (aac6ib)
  • Isepamicin (aac6ib)
  • Amikacin (aac6ib)
  • Sisomicin (aac6ib)
  • Dibekacin (aac6ib)
  • Trimethoprim (dfrb3)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra14)
  • Cephamycin (bl2_kpc)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_kpc)
  • Penicillin (bl2_kpc)
  • Carbapenem (bl2_kpc)
  • Chloramphenicol (catb2)
  • Tobramycin (ant2ia)
  • Sisomicin (ant2ia)
  • Kanamycin (ant2ia)
  • Gentamicin (ant2ia)
  • Dibekacin (ant2ia)
  • Streptomycin (aph6id)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnra)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra15)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa2)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa2)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_mox)
  • Tetracycline (tete)
  • Trimethoprim (dfrb1)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata2)
  • Aminoglycoside (acra)
  • Glycylcycline (acra)
  • Macrolide (acra)
  • Beta lactam (acra)
  • Acriflavin (acra)
  • Cephamycin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Cephalosporin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Ceftriaxone (bl1_cmy2)
  • Cefoxitin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Carbapenem (bl1_cmy2)
  • Ceftazidime (bl1_cmy2)
  • Sulfonamide (sul2)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra1)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa9)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa9)
  • Tetracycline (teta)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra22)
  • Cephalosporin (bl1_acc)
  • E penicillin (bl1_acc)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_ampc)
  • Tetracycline (tetb)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrs)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra5)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_oxy1)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_oxy1)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_vim)
  • Cephalosporin (bl3_vim)
  • Penicillin (bl3_vim)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_vim)
  • Tobramycin (aac6iia)
  • Netilmicin (aac6iia)
  • Sisomicin (aac6iia)
  • Gentamicin (aac6iia)
  • Dibekacin (aac6iia)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin iii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Ceftazidime (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra17)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2b_tem)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa1)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa1)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_ges)
  • Penicillin (bl2_ges)
  • Streptomycin (aph6ic)
  • Carbenicillin (bl2c_pse1)
  • Penicillin (bl2c_pse1)
  • Cephalosproin (bl3_imp)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_imp)
  • Penicillin (bl3_imp)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_imp)
  • Tobramycin (aac3iia)
  • Netilmicin (aac3iia)
  • Sisomicin (aac3iia)
  • Gentamicin (aac3iia)
  • Dibekacin (aac3iia)
  • Chloramphenicol (catb3)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata3)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2b_tem1)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem1)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2b_tem1)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra10)
  • Streptomycin (aph33ib)
  • Penicillin (bl2_len)

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