MAOA

MONOAMINE OXIDASE A

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DESCRIPTION

This gene is one of two neighboring gene family members that encode mitochondrial enzymes which catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Mutation of this gene results in Brunner syndrome. This gene has also been associated with a variety of other psychiatric disorders, including antisocial behavior. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed.

MAOA is one of two neighboring gene family members that encode mitochondrial enzymes which catalyze the breakdown of a class of molecules known as 'amines' (such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.).  MAOA defects can lead to low/high levels causing mood swings, OCD, anxiety, aggression, insomnia and depression. Despite feeling depleted patients have a feeling of being overstimulated. This gene has also been associated with a variety of other psychiatric disorders, major depression(1),including extreme aggression and antisocial behavior(2).

Exacerbated effect of increased anxiety and lower frustration thresholds when coupled with ACE deletions, SOD2, COMT, SL6A4, TH, THP, BDNF, APOE, ESR1 and CLOCK(3,4).

"Methyl trapping" - Common with MAOA and worsened by mutations in methionine cycle genes, MTHFR 677T, Cytochrome P450, ACAT1, ACE, DHFR, QDPR, neurotransmitter and drug transporter genes. There are varying degrees of neurotoxic symptoms manifested as apparently unprovoked insomnia, rage, anxiety, brain fog and alcohol intolerance (induced sulfite and aldehyde toxicity), often after experiencing a brief period of improvement from low energy and cognitive impairment after high dose supplementation with methyl folate and methyl cobalamine.(5-12)

 

...the maintenance of normal monoamine oxidase activity in vivo depends upon an adequate supply of dietary iron and riboflavin.(13)

While riboflavin deficiency caused the enzyme activity to fall to 80% of norma, when 7-ethyl-8-methylflavin replaced riboflavin as the precursor of its coenzyme, it caused essentially complete loss of the enzyme activity. We showed that while 7-ethyl-8-methylflavin can serve as a coenzyme for MAO, 7-methyl-8-ethylflavin cannot serve as coenzyme for this enzyme.(14)

References:

  1. Zhang J, Chen Y, Zhang K, Yang H, Sun Y, Fang Y, Shen Y, Xu Q. A cis-phase interaction study of genetic variants within the MAOA gene in major depressive
    disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Nov 1;68(9):795-800. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.06.004. Epub 2010 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 20691428.

  2. Beaver KM, Barnes JC, Boutwell BB. The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors. Psychiatr Q. 2014 Sep;85(3):257-65. doi: 10.1007/s11126-013-9287-x. PubMed PMID: 24326626.

  3. Shumay E, Logan J, Volkow ND, Fowler JS. Evidence that the methylation state of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene predicts brain activity of MAO A enzyme in healthy men. Epigenetics. 2012 Oct;7(10):1151-60. doi: 10.4161/epi.21976. Epub 2012 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 22948232; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3469457.

  4. Mandelli L, Serretti A. Gene environment interaction studies in depression and suicidal behavior: An update. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Dec;37(10 Pt1):237597. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.07.011. Epub 2013 Jul 22. Review. [PMID: 23886513].

  5. Pogribna M, Melnyk S, Pogribny I, Chango A, Yi P, James SJ. Homocysteine metabolism in children with Down syndrome: in vitro modulation. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jul;69(1):88-95. PMID: 11391481.
     
  6. Thöny B, Blau N. Mutations in the BH4-metabolizing genes GTP cyclohydrolase I, 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase, sepiapterin reductase, carbinolamine-4a-dehydratase, and dihydropteridine reductase. Hum Mutat. 2006 Sep;27(9):870-8. PubMed PMID: 16917893.

  7. Finkelstein JD. Pathways and regulation of homocysteine metabolism in mammals.
    Semin Thromb Hemost. 2000;26(3):219-25. Review. PMID: 11011839.

  8. Nijhout HF, Reed MC, Budu P, Ulrich CM. A mathematical model of the folate cycle: new insights into folate homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 31;279(53):55008-16. Epub 2004 Oct 20. PubMed PMID: 15496403.

  9. Smulders YM, Smith DE, Kok RM, Teerlink T, Swinkels DW, Stehouwer CD, Jakobs C. Cellular folate vitamer distribution during and after correction of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case for the methylfolate trap. Br J Haematol. 2006 Mar;132(5):623-9.

  10. Tisman G, Garcia A. Control of prostate cancer associated with withdrawal of a supplement containing folic acid, L-methyltetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2011 Aug 25;5:413. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-413.

  11. Collin SM, Metcalfe C, Refsum H, Lewis SJ, Zuccolo L, Smith GD, Chen L, Harris R, Davis M, Marsden G, Johnston C, Lane JA, Ebbing M, Bønaa KH, Nygård O, Ueland PM, Grau MV, Baron JA, Donovan JL, Neal DE, Hamdy FC, Smith AD, Martin RM. Circulating folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, vitamin B12 transport proteins, and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Jun;19(6):1632-42. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0180. Epub 2010 May 25. Review.

  12. http://datapunk.net/opus23blog/2016/02/20/dont-fall-into-the-methyl-trap/
  13. Symes AL, Missala K, Sourkes TL. Iron- and riboflavin-dependent metabolism of a monamine in the rat in vivo. Science. 1971 Oct 8;174(4005):153-5. PubMed PMID: 5119626.
  14. Dix BA, Lambooy JP. Brain monoamine oxidase and replacement of its coenzyme flavin in rats. J Nutr. 1981 Aug;111(8):1397-402. PubMed PMID: 7264772.
AGENTS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPRESSION OF MAOA
AGENT EVIDENCE ACTION PUBMED
7-ETHYL-8-METHYLFLAVIN
7-ETHYL-8-METHYLFLAVIN
2 UNDEFINED 1
ACORUS TATARINOWII
ACORUS TATARINOWII
1 ANTAGONIST 1
ARECOLINE
ARECOLINE
3 ANTAGONIST 1
ASHWAGANDHA (WITHANIA SOMNIFERA)
ASHWAGANDHA (WITHANIA SOMNIFERA)
2 AGONIST 1
BERBERINE
BERBERINE
3 ANTAGONIST 1,2,3
BINGE DRINKING
BINGE DRINKING
2 UNDEFINED 1
COPTIS RHIZOME
COPTIS RHIZOME
2 ANTAGONIST 1,2
COPTISINE
COPTISINE
1 ANTAGONIST 1
CURCUMIN
CURCUMIN
8 ANTAGONIST 1,2,3,4
ESTRADIOL
ESTRADIOL
2 ANTAGONIST 1
ESTROGEN
ESTROGEN
3 ANTAGONIST 1
EUGENOL
EUGENOL
1 ANTAGONIST 1
GUAIACOL
GUAIACOL
1 ANTAGONIST 1
IRON
IRON
4 AGONIST 1,2
ISOEUGENOL
ISOEUGENOL
1 ANTAGONIST 1
LITHIUM OROTATE
LITHIUM OROTATE
3 AGONIST 1
LUTEOLIN
LUTEOLIN
1 ANTAGONIST 1
PASSIONFLOWER (PASSIFLORA INCARNATA)
PASSIONFLOWER (PASSIFLORA INCARNATA)
2 ANTAGONIST 1
PIPERINE
PIPERINE
1 ANTAGONIST 1
PROGESTERONE
PROGESTERONE
10 AGONIST 1,2,3,4
QUERCETIN
QUERCETIN
1 ANTAGONIST 1
RESVERATROL
RESVERATROL
1 ANTAGONIST 1
RESVERATROLOSIDE
RESVERATROLOSIDE
1 ANTAGONIST 1
RHODIOLA ROSEA
RHODIOLA ROSEA
1 ANTAGONIST 1
TESTOSTERONE
TESTOSTERONE
1 ANTAGONIST 1
THEANINE
THEANINE
2 UNDEFINED 1
VITAMIN B-1 (THIAMINE)
VITAMIN B-1 (THIAMINE)
3 AGONIST 1
VITAMIN B-2 (RIBOFLAVIN)
VITAMIN B-2 (RIBOFLAVIN)
8 AGONIST 1,2,3,4,5
VITAMIN D (CALCIFEROLS)
VITAMIN D (CALCIFEROLS)
3 MIXED 1,2
ZINGERONE
ZINGERONE
1 ANTAGONIST 1
DISEASE ASSOCIATIONS WITH MAOA
SNPS ASSOCIATED WITH MAOA
REFERENCE ID MAGNITUDE ALLELE KEY CONCEPTS
rs2235186 6 G ADHD
rs909525 10 T WARRIOR GENE, ANGER, AGGRESSION, SUICIDE, SUICIDALITY, METHYL TRAPPING
rs1137070 6 T ESTROGEN DOMINANCE AND LOW OXIDATIVE DEAMINATION OF AMINES, SUCH AS DOPAMINE, NOREPINEPHRINE, AND SEROTONIN
rs5953210 6 G SUBSTANCE ABUSE, GOUT
rs3027399 8 G WARRIOR, X-LINKED METHYL-TRAPPING
rs6323 9 T WILD-TYPE MAOA, CATECHOLAMINES METHYL TRAPPING ANTI-DEPRESSANT RESPONSE, MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
rs2072743 6 T MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER ADHD
rs5906883 6 C ADHD
rs2283725 6 A GOUT
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MAOA
DRUG SNP ADVERSE REACTION ALLELE PUBMED
TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF MAOA
CATEGORY TISSUE
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM HEART
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM LIVER
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PANCREAS
INTEGUMENT SKIN
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TESTIS
NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEM
OBSTETRICAL PLACENTA
PATHWAY REGULATION ASSOCIATED WITH MAOA
PATHWAY EFFECT
IL-4 SIGNALING PATHWAY UPREGULATION
CAUSAL ETIOLOGIC ASSOCIATIONS (INFERRED)MAOA
ETIOLOGY MAGNITUDE
ABSCESS2
ACETAMIDES2
ACETAMINOPHEN2
ADENOCARCINOMA2
ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS2
ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES2
ADRENAL GLAND DISEASES2
ADRENERGIC AGENTS2
ADRENERGIC AGONISTS2
ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS2
ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION2
AFFECTIVE DISORDERS, PSYCHOTIC2
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION2
AIR POLLUTANTS2
ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS2
ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES2
ALCOHOL DRINKING2
ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS2
AMINO ACIDS, DIAMINO2
AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS2
AMPHETAMINE2
AMPHETAMINES2
AMYLOIDOSIS2
AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN2
ANALGESIA2
ANALGESICS2
ANALGESICS, NON-NARCOTIC2
ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL2
ANEMIA, HYPOCHROMIC2
ANESTHESIA2
ANESTHETICS2
ANESTHETICS, GENERAL2
ANESTHETICS, INTRAVENOUS2
ANEURYSM2
ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON2
ANGIOSPERMS2
ANKYLOSIS2
ANOXIA2
ANTACIDS2
ANTI-ASTHMATIC AGENTS2
ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS2
ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS2
ANTI-HIV AGENTS2
ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS2
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS2
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL2
ANTIBODIES, MONOCLONAL2
ANTICHOLESTEREMIC AGENTS2
ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS2
ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS2
ANTILIPEMIC AGENTS2
ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS2
ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS2
ANTIVIRAL AGENTS2
ANXIETY2
ANXIETY DISORDERS2
ARECA2
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS2
ARTHRITIS2
ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID2
ASTHMA2
ASTROCYTOMA2
ATTENTION DEFICIT AND DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR DISORDERS2
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES2
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES2
AVITAMINOSIS2
AZIDES2
BACTEREMIA2
BARBITURATES2
BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES2
BENZAMIDES2
BENZAZEPINES2
BENZODIAZEPINES2
BENZODIAZEPINONES2
BENZOFURANS2
BLINDNESS2
BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION2
BLOOD TRANSFUSION2
BONE DISEASES2
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION2
BRAIN CONCUSSION2
BRAIN DISEASES2
BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN2
BRAIN INFARCTION2
BRAIN INJURIES2
BRAIN ISCHEMIA2
BRAIN NEOPLASMS2
BREAST FEEDING2
BREAST NEOPLASMS2
BURNS2
CALCIUM METABOLISM DISORDERS2
CANNABINOIDS2
CANNABIS2
CARBAMATES2
CARBOHYDRATES2
CARDIAC PACING, ARTIFICIAL2
CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES2
CARDIOVASCULAR AGENTS2
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES2
CAROTID ARTERY DISEASES2
CASTRATION2
CATECHOLAMINES2
CECAL NEOPLASMS2
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS2
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM BACTERIAL INFECTIONS2
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CYSTS2
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS2
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES2
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS2
CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY2
CEREBRAL ARTERIAL DISEASES2
CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE2
CEREBRAL INFARCTION2
CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT2
CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS2
CHILD BEHAVIOR DISORDERS2
CHILD DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS, PERVASIVE2
CHLAMYDIA INFECTIONS2
CHLAMYDOPHILA INFECTIONS2
CHOLECYSTECTOMY2
CHOLESTEROL2
CHOLINERGIC AGENTS2
CHOLINERGIC ANTAGONISTS2
CHOREATIC DISORDERS2
CHROMOSOME DISORDERS2
CIPROFLOXACIN2
CLOFIBRIC ACID2
CLONIDINE2
COCAINE2
CODEINE2
COGNITION DISORDERS2
COLONIC DISEASES, FUNCTIONAL2
COMPLEMENT C1Q2
CONSTIPATION2
CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL2
CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, FEMALE2
CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS2
CORONARY DISEASE2
COSMETIC TECHNIQUES2
CRANIAL IRRADIATION2
CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA2
CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA2
CRYPTOCOCCOSIS2
CYCLOHEXANES2
CYCLOHEXANOLS2
CYCLOSPORINS2
CYSTEINE2
CYSTICERCOSIS2
CYSTS2
DELIRIUM, DEMENTIA, AMNESTIC, COGNITIVE DISORDERS2
DEMENTIA2
DEMENTIA, VASCULAR2
DEMYELINATING DISEASES2
DENTAL ALLOYS2
DEPRESSION2
DEPRESSIVE DISORDER2
DERMATITIS2
DEXAMETHASONE2
DEXTROMETHORPHAN2
DIABETES, GESTATIONAL2
DIABETES COMPLICATIONS2
DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 12
DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 22
DIBENZAZEPINES2
DIET2
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES2
DIETARY FATS2
DIETARY PROTEINS2
DIET THERAPY2
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SURGICAL PROCEDURES2
DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE2
DIPHENHYDRAMINE2
DOPAMINE AGENTS2
DRUG HYPERSENSITIVITY2
DWARFISM2
DYSKINESIAS2
DYSPEPSIA2
EATING DISORDERS2
EDEMA2
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS2
ENCEPHALITIS2
ENCEPHALITIS, ARBOVIRUS2
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM DISEASES2
ENDOTOXINS2
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE2
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS2
ENZYME INHIBITORS2
EPILEPSIES, PARTIAL2
EPILEPSY2
ERGOLINES2
ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY DISORDERS2
ESTRADIOL2
ESTROGENS2
ETHANOL2
EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION2
FACIAL PAIN2
FATIGUE2
FATS2
FENTANYL2
FLAVORING AGENTS2
FLUORIDES2
FOOD2
FOOD, FORMULATED2
FOOD ADDITIVES2
FREE RADICALS2
FRUIT2
GABA AGENTS2
GASTROENTERITIS2
GAS POISONING2
GENETIC DISEASES, INBORN2
GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED2
GLIOMA2
GLUTAMATES2
GLUTAMIC ACID2
GONADAL DISORDERS2
GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIAL INFECTIONS2
GROWTH DISORDERS2
GYNECOLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES2
HAIR PREPARATIONS2
HAMARTOMA2
HEART DEFECTS, CONGENITAL2
HEART DISEASES2
HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE2
HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL2
HERBICIDES2
HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES2
HEREDODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS, NERVOUS SYSTEM2
HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS2
HERPES SIMPLEX2
HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS WITH 4 OR MORE RINGS2
HEXOSES2
HISTAMINE ANTAGONISTS2
HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS2
HISTIOCYTOSIS, NON-LANGERHANS-CELL2
HIV INFECTIONS2
HORMONE ANTAGONISTS2
HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY2
HOT FLASHES2
HYDRAZINES2
HYDROCARBONS, FLUORINATED2
HYDROXYBUTYRATES2
HYDROXY ACIDS2
HYPERINSULINISM2
HYPERLIPIDEMIA2
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM2
HYPERPHAGIA2
HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE2
HYPERTENSION2
HYPOGLYCEMIA2
HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS2
HYPOGONADISM2
HYPOPARATHYROIDISM2
HYPOTENSION2
HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES2
HYPOTHALAMIC NEOPLASMS2
HYPOTHYROIDISM2
IMMUNOTOXINS2
IMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR2
INDANS2
INDOLES2
INFANT FOOD2
INFECTION2
INFLAMMATION2
INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS2
INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS2
INTERFERON-ALPHA2
INTERFERONS2
INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS2
INTRACRANIAL EMBOLISM AND THROMBOSIS2
INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION2
IRON COMPOUNDS2
IRON METABOLISM DISORDERS2
ISOFLAVONES2
ISOQUINOLINES2
ISOXAZOLES2
KIDNEY DISEASES2
KIDNEY FAILURE2
KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION2
LANGUAGE DISORDERS2
LAPAROSCOPY2
LEARNING DISORDERS2
LEUKEMIA, LYMPHOCYTIC, ACUTE2
LIPOMATOSIS2
LITHIUM2
LIVER CIRRHOSIS2
LIVER DISEASES2
LOVASTATIN2
LUNG DISEASES2
LUNG DISEASES, INTERSTITIAL2
LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE2
LUNG TRANSPLANTATION2
LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC2
LYME DISEASE2
LYMPHOMA, B-CELL2
MACROLIDES2
MALABSORPTION SYNDROMES2
MALNUTRITION2
MEDIASTINAL DISEASES2
MEDROXYPROGESTERONE2
MEMORY DISORDERS2
MENINGEAL NEOPLASMS2
MENINGITIS, FUNGAL2
MENINGOENCEPHALITIS2
MENTAL DISORDERS2
MENTAL RETARDATION2
METABOLIC DISEASES2
METALS2
METALS, HEAVY2
METALS, LIGHT2
METHADONE2
METHYLDOPA2
METHYLPREDNISOLONE2
MIGRAINE DISORDERS2
MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES2
MOOD DISORDERS2
MORPHINANS2
MORPHOLINES2
MOTOR NEURON DISEASE2
MOTOR SKILLS DISORDERS2
MOVEMENT DISORDERS2
MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSES2
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS2
MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY2
MUSCULAR DISEASES2
MUSCULAR DISORDERS, ATROPHIC2
MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES2
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES2
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS2
MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE2
MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION2
MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROMES2
MYOTONIC DISORDERS2
NALOXONE2
NAPHTHALENES2
NEFOPAM2
NEOPLASMS2
NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE2
NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC2
NERVE DEGENERATION2
NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES2
NEURILEMMOMA2
NEUROCUTANEOUS SYNDROMES2
NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES2
NEUROFIBROMATOSES2
NEUROMUSCULAR AGENTS2
NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES2
NEUROPEPTIDES2
NEUROTOXINS2
NEUROTRANSMITTER AGENTS2
NEUROTRANSMITTER UPTAKE INHIBITORS2
NITRILES2
NITROGEN OXIDES2
NITROIMIDAZOLES2
NOCARDIA INFECTIONS2
NOISE2
NUTRITION DISORDERS2
OBESITY2
OKADAIC ACID2
OLIGOPEPTIDES2
OPHTHALMOPLEGIA2
OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS2
ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS2
OSTEOARTHRITIS2
OVARIAN CYSTS2
OXAZINES2
OXIDANTS2
OXIDOPAMINE2
OXYGEN2
PAIN2
PANCREATIC DISEASES2
PARASOMNIAS2
PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS2
PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY2
PATIENT CARE2
PELVIC PAIN2
PENTANOIC ACIDS2
PENTAZOCINE2
PEPTIDES2
PERIODONTAL DISEASES2
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES2
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS2
PERSONALITY DISORDERS2
PESTICIDES2
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS2
PHENIRAMINE2
PHENYLACETATES2
PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE2
PHENYLPROPIONATES2
PHOTOTHERAPY2
PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL2
PIPERAZINES2
PIPERIDINES2
PITUITARY DISEASES2
PITUITARY HORMONES2
PITUITARY NEOPLASMS2
POLIOMYELITIS2
POLYRADICULOPATHY2
PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS2
PROGESTERONE2
PROGESTERONE CONGENERS2
PROPANOLAMINES2
PROPOXYPHENE2
PROPYLAMINES2
PROSTAGLANDINS E, SYNTHETIC2
PROTEASE INHIBITORS2
PROTECTIVE DEVICES2
PROTEIN PRECURSORS2
PRURITUS2
PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM2
PSILOCYBINE2
PSORALENS2
PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDERS2
PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS2
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS2
PUERPERAL DISORDERS2
PULMONARY DISEASE, CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE2
PYRIDINES2
PYRIDINIUM COMPOUNDS2
PYRIDONES2
PYRIMIDINONES2
QUINOLINIC ACID2
QUINOLONES2
RADIOTHERAPY2
RADIO WAVES2
RENAL DIALYSIS2
REPERFUSION INJURY2
RESPIRATION DISORDERS2
RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY2
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AGENTS2
RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES2
RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS2
RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA2
RETINOIDS2
RHEUMATIC DISEASES2
RHINITIS2
SCHIZOPHRENIA2
SEIZURES2
SELF CARE2
SENSATION DISORDERS2
SEROTONIN AGENTS2
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS, PSYCHOLOGICAL2
SILICON2
SKULL NEOPLASMS2
SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE2
SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES2
SLEEP DISORDERS2
SLEEP INITIATION AND MAINTENANCE DISORDERS2
SMOKING2
SODIUM, DIETARY2
SODIUM CHLORIDE2
SODIUM COMPOUNDS2
SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS2
SOLVENTS2
SOMATOFORM DISORDERS2
SPEECH DISORDERS2
SPINAL CORD DISEASES2
SPINAL CORD INJURIES2
SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS2
SPONDYLARTHROPATHIES2
SPONDYLITIS2
STARCH2
STEREOTAXIC TECHNIQUES2
STEROID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS2
STREET DRUGS2
STRESS2
STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL2
STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC2
SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE2
SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS2
SUBSTANCE WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME2
SUCROSE2
SYNCOPE2
TELLURIUM2
TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS2
TETANUS TOXOID2
THALASSEMIA2
THIAZEPINES2
THIAZOLES2
THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME2
THYROIDITIS2
THYROID HORMONES2
TIC DISORDERS2
TOBACCO2
TOLUENE2
TOOTH DISEASES2
TOOTH EXTRACTION2
TOXEMIA2
TRANQUILIZING AGENTS2
TRANSITION ELEMENTS2
TRIAZOLES2
TYROSINE2
UREMIA2
URINATION DISORDERS2
VASCULAR DISEASES2
VASCULITIS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM2
VISION DISORDERS2
VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY2
VITAMIN B DEFICIENCY2
VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY2
VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY2
WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE2
WATER POLLUTANTS2
WATER POLLUTION, CHEMICAL2
WOUNDS AND INJURIES2
XANTHINES2
YOHIMBINE2
METABOLOME ASSOCIATIONS: MAOA
HMDB ID METABOLITE
HMDB03188 HARMALINE
HMDB04284 TYROSOL