Covid2019 / SARSCoV2 coronavirus antivirals


Peter D'Adamo, ND
Timestamp : 2020/03/29 (05:51:54)
Please Note: This table is in a perpetual state of flux.

Conc:
Maximum concentration
Cyto:
CorV cytopathic effects
CorV:
Coronavirus activity
InfV:
Influenza activity
HerV:
Herpesvirus activity
HIV:
HIV activity
HepV:
Hepatitis activity
Evid:
Evidence Basis
Poly:
Polypharmacy cocktail
Refs: References S: Speculative E: Empirical O: Observational R: Case/ Field Report I: In Vitro Y: Yes N: No Multi: Multiple actions
 
Interferons
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Interferon α-2a (Roferon) 100,000 IU/mL
N
Y
Y
O/I
1
Interferon α-2b (Intron A) 500,000 IU/mL
N
Y
O/I
1
Interferon α-n1 (Wellferon) 500,000 IU/mL
Y
Y
Y
O/I
1
Interferon α-n3 (Alferon; genital warts) 10,000 IU/mL
Y
Y
O/I
1
Interferon β-1a (Rebif) 500,000 IU/mL
N
O/I
1
Interferon β-1b (Betaferon 100,000 IU/mL
Y
Y
Y
O/I
1
 
Nucleoside analogs
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Acyclovir (Zovirax) 1,000 µg/mL
N
Y
O/I
1
Ganciclovir (Cymevene; cytomegalovirus) 50,000 µg/mL
N
O/I/R
1 | 10 | 13
Ribavirin ICN 10,000 µg/mL
Y
Y
Y
Y
O/I
1
Taribavirin
Y
Y
Y
S
68
 
Protease inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Indinavir (Crixivan) 100 µmol/L
N
Y
O/I
1
Nelfinavir (Viracept) 10,000 nmol/L
N
Y
O/I
1
Saquinavir (Fortovase) 10,000 nmol/L
N
Y
O/I
1
Camostat (Foipan; inhibits TMPRSS2 and other cell-surface proteases )
Y
O/I
47 | 117
Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra, Aluvia)
Y
Y
Y
O/I/R
1 | 10 | 13
Epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) 2 actions
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
O/E
45 | 109 | 110
Kaempferol-7-glucoside
Y
O/E
45
Mycophenolic acid)
Y
Y
O/I
55
Darunavir (Prezista)
Y
Y
Y
Y
O/E/R
69 | 70
Houttuynia cordata (Also SARS RNA polymerase inhibitor)
Y
Y
Y
Y
O/I
72
Mercaptopurine
Y
Y
Y
E
76 | 77 | 80
Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba;chalcones)
Y
O/I
84
Disulfiram (antabuse)
Y
Y
O/I
90
 
Furin Convertase Cleavage inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Tenofovir_disoproxil 2 actions
Y
O/I
111
Dolutegravir
Y
O/I
111
Boceprevir 2 actions
Y
O/I
111
Andrographolide (Andrographis spp) 4 actions
O
24 | 114 | 116
Luteolin 2 actions
O
63 | 113
Oroxylum indicum 2 actions
O
112
Baicalein
O
112
 
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Lamivudine (Epivir) 1,000 µmol/L
N
Y
Y
O/I
1
Zidovudine (Retrovir) 1,000 µg/mL
N
Y
O/I
1
 
RNA Polymerase/Synthesis Inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Remdesivir (novel nucleotide analog prodrug)
Y
Y
Y
O/R
1 | 10 | 86
Sofosbuvir (Hepatitis C treatment)
Y
S
Dactinomycin (actinomycin D)
Y
Y
E
80
Favipiravir (T-705; Avigan; Favilavir)
Y
Y
O/E
93 | 103
Galidesivir (BCX4430, Immucillin-A)
Y
Y
Y
E
93
Baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza)
Y
Y
E
93
 
Neuraminidase inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) 10,000 µmol/L
N
Y
Y
O/R
1 | 10 | 13
Zanamivir (Relenza) 1,000 µmol/L
N
Y
O/I
1
Sheng Jiang San
Y
S
53
Cynanchum wilfordii 40 μg/mL
Y
S
54
Balanophora involucrata 40 μg/mL
Y
S
54
Pyrola calliantha 40 μg/mL
Y
S
54
Paeonia delavayi 40 μg/mL
Y
S
54
 
Angiotensin II receptor blockers
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Valsartan
S
Telmisartan
S
Losartan
S
57
Irbesartan
Y
E
58
Azilsartan
S
Olmesartan
S
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei)
Y
O/I
42
Radix Polygoni multiflori)
Y
O/I
42
Caulis Polygoni multiflori)
Y
O/I
42
Emodin (anthraquinone)
Y
Y
O/I
42 | 81
ACE2 Receptor-binding Domain (RBD) 2 actions
S
90 | 91
Soluble ACE2 Receptor Adhesin 2 actions
S
90 | 92
Astragalus spp.
S
116
 
Endosome fusion inhibitors/ Endosome alkalinizers
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis; baicalin; 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) 3 actions
Y
O/I
28 | 98 | 102
Chloroquine (Hydroxychloroquine; antimalarial) 2 actions
Y
Y
Y
O/R
66 | 89
Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica; Hevein-like superantigen lectin) 3 actions
Y
Y
O/I
2 | 3 | 93 | 99 | 116
Griffithsin (red algae Griffithsia sp) 2 actions
Y
O/I
2 | 4 | 99
Quinine (Chinchona sp) 2 actions
S
101
Chloroquine analogs(hydroxychloroquine, pamaquine, plasmoquine, primaquine, mefloquine, ferroquine)
S
100
Lactoferrin (apolactoferrin)
Y
Y
Y
S
104 | 105
 
AAK1, GAK and Clathrin A,B,C (Endocytosis) Inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Baricitinib (AAK1, GAK, JAK1)
E
61
Sunitinib (AAK1)
S
61
Erlotinib (AAK1)
S
61
Fedratinib (AAK1)
S
61
Gefitinib (Iressa; GAK)
S
62
Cinnamomi Cortex (cinnamon; clathrin inhibitor)
Y
O/I
64
Silibinin (milk thistle; clathrin inhibitor)
Y
Y
S
65
 
Hemagglutinin esterase Inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
3,4-dichloroisocoumarin
Y
S
51
Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry; lipid raft formation ) 3 actions
Y
S
52 | 116
 
Cytokine or Other Inflammatory Inhibitors and Modulators
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Ligustrazine (Tetramethylpyrazine; alkaloid from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort)
S
71
Statins (anti-inflammatory)
Y
S
9
Melatonin
Y
E
78 | 79 | 80
Eplerenone (aldosterone receptor antagonist)
E
81
Methylprednisolone
O/E
88
 
Cathepsin-B Inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Qushi Huayu Decoction
S
48 | 50
Salvianolic acid B (Salvia miltiorrhiza)
S
49
 
Cathepsin-L Inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
MOL736
Y
E
14
Wenyang Huoxue Lishui Recipe
S
15
Drynariae rhizoma
S
16
Chelidocystatin (Chelidonium majus L.)
S
17
Astaxanthin
S
18
Curcumin
19
Vitamin D
20
 
Helicase nsp13 Inhibitors
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Valsartan
I/E
11
Bananin
I/E
11
Iodobananin
I/E
11
Vanillinbananin
I/E
11
Eubananin
I/E
11
Radix Isatis Non-specific
S
46
Silvestrol (Aglaia silvestris; Aglaia foveolata)
Y
O/I
97
 
MBL2 Gene Agonists
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Beta Glucans
Y
S
33 | 82
Chinese Chive (Allium Tuberosum)
41
Garlic (Allium sativa)
Y
O/I
39 | 83
Japanese Angelica Acutiloba Root
8
Larch Arabinogalactan
34 | 35
Shallots (Allium ascalonicum)
36
Smilax Rhizome (Sarsparilla)
38
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Y
S
40
Wild Garlic (Allium ursinum)
39
 
TP53 Inhibition of SARS coronavirus
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Vitexin
30
Nigella sativa
22 | 23
Noni (Morinda citrifolia)
31
Horehound (Marrubrium spp
26
Gossypol (Gossypium spp)
25
Celandine (Chelidonium spp)
32
 
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Toremifene (first generation nonsteroidal SERM)
Y
E
74 | 81
Equilin
E
75 | 81
 
Anti-viral Lectins
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Garlic (Allium sativum ; monocot mannose-binding lectin)
Y
O/I
39 | 83
Leek (Allium porrum; monocot mannose-binding lectin)
59
Onion (Allium cepa agglutinin)
60
Jacalin (jackfruit seeds)
Y
S
2
Sambucus nigra L. (black elder; type 1, and type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein:'RIPs)
6
Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrop Agglutinin; gp120 fusion inhibitor)
12
Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) agglutinin (HHA)
12
Shallots (Allium ascalonicum; mannose-binding lectin)
36
Smilax Rhizome (Sarsparilla)
38
Momordica charantia (Bitter melon; RIP protein)
43 | 44
 
Miscellaneous Drugs
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Amantadine (Symmetrel) 1,000 µg/mL
N
Y
E
1
Foscarnet (Foscavir; anti-herpetic) 8,000 µmol/L
N
Y
E
1
Triazavirin (non-nucleoside antiviral developed for H5N1)
Y
S
1
Umifenovir (Arbidol)
Y
Y
Y
O/E/R
69 | 70
Sirolimus (Rapamycin; mTOR inhibitor)
Y
Y
E
80 | 81
Everolimus (mTOR inhibitor)
Y
Y
E
81
Nitazoxanide (Thiazolide anti-parasitic)
Y
Y
O/I
93 | 94
Tizoxanide (Metabolite of nitazoxanide; antiparasitic)
Y
Y
O/I
93 | 94
Caraphenol A (Resveratrol trimer; IFITM inducer)
S
95
 
Miscellaneous Procedures
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment
E
85
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy
E
87 | 90
Washed Microbiota Transplantation
E
88
Anti-S antibodies (2019-nCoV)
S
90
(siRNA) / Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy
S
90
 
General antiviral natural products
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
Cimicifuga rhizoma
Y
5
Meliae cortex
Y
5
Glycyrrhizin (active component of licorice)
Y
56
Coptis rhizoma
Y
5
Phellodendron cortex
Y
5
Sophora subprostrata and Radix Sophora
Y
Y
O/I
5 | 73
Vitamin C (ascorbate)
S
19 | 20
Sambucus FormosanaNakai (species of elderberry)
Y
O
66
Caffeic acid
Y
O
66
Resveratrol
Y
O/I
96
Acanthopanacis Cortex
Y
Y
O/I
73
Sanguisorbae Radix (Great Burnet)
Y
Y
O/I
73
Torilis Fructus
Y
Y
O/I
73
Selenium
Y
Y
Y
O/E
106 | 107 | 108
Bupleurum spp
Y
O/E
118
Sulforaphane 2 actions
Y
O/E
119
 
NRF2 (NFE2L2) Antioxidant Response Element enhancers
Multi
Conc
Cyto
CorV
InfV
HerV
HIV
HepV
Poly
Evid
Refs
 

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