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Firmicutes

RANK: Phylum

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes

OVERVIEW:

The 'Firmicutes' (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, however, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas and Zymophilus, have a porous pseudo-outer-membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative. Scientists once classified the Firmicutes to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but have recently defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria. They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod- like forms (bacillus). Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens. Those in one family, the heliobacteria, produce energy through photosynthesis. Firmicutes play an important role in beer, wine, and cider spoilage. Weight loss resulting from a low-energy diet is accompanied by a shift in gut microbiota composition to resemble that of lean individuals with a decrease in Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes.



Microbial Abundance Data: Firmicutes
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
62.261 %
(15.497)
66.437 %
(14.401)
61.131 %
(17.261)
59.213 %
(14.829)
42.974 %
(14.658)
46.872 %
(15.955)
44.055 %
(16.276)
40.957 %
(14.781)
40.013 %
(11.622)
22.872 %
(10.446)
23.002 %
(9.873)
22.743 %
(11.019)
51.48 %
(19.260)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS

CLUSTERS WITH
METABOLOMICS       
NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES

ENDPRODUCTS
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
BIOFILM FORMERS   
COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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