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Staphylococcus aureus

RANK: Species

TAXONOMY: Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Bacilli -> Bacillales -> Staphylococcaceae -> Staphylococcus -> Staphylococcus aureus

OVERVIEW:

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive coccal bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction. Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections such as abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing potent protein toxins, and expressing cell-surface proteins that bind and inactivate antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as MRSA is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine.S. aureus is catalase-positive (meaning it can produce the enzyme catalase). Catalase converts hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen. Catalase-activity tests are sometimes used to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. Previously, S. aureus was differentiated from other staphylococci by the coagulase test. However, not all S. aureus strains are coagulase-positive and incorrect species identification can impact effective treatment and control measures Identified as a constituent of the oral microbiome by Human Oral Microbiome Database. Skin infections are the most common form of S. aureus infection. This can manifest in various ways, including small benign boils, folliculitis, impetigo, cellulitis, and more severe, invasive soft tissue infections. S. aureus is extremely prevalent in persons with atopic dermatitis. It is mostly found in fertile, active places, including the armpits, hair, and scalp. Large pimples that appear in those areas may exacerbate the infection if lacerated. This can lead to staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. A severe form of this, Ritter's disease, can be observed in neonates. The presence of S. aureus in persons with atopic dermatitis is not an indication to treat with oral antibiotics, as evidence has not shown this to give benefit to the patient. The relationship between S. aureus and atopic dermatitis is unclear. Identified as constitutent of skin microbiome. [PMC 2746716] Staphylococcus aureus is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) positive.

This species has been identified as a resident in the human gastrointestinal tract based on the phylogenetic framework of its small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.[PMC 4262072]

2

COGEM
COGEM released a comprehensive database of pathogenicity assessment of around 2575 bacterial species in 2011. The database ranks the pathogenicity of species on a scale of 1 to 4. Staphylococcus aureus ranks 2 on this scale: Species that can cause diseases in humans or animals, which are unlikely to spread in the human population and for which an adequate prophylaxis or therapy exists


TAGS >
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS

CLUSTERS WITH
Group 39
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Corynebacterium jeikeium
  • Group 3
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Streptomyces coelicolor
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Chloroflexus aurantiacus
  • Oceanobacillus iheyensis
  • Mycoplasma capricolum
  • Aeromonas hydrophila
  • Bacillus pumilus
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Bacillus licheniformis
  • Listeria innocua
  • Geobacillus kaustophilus
  • Clostridium novyi
  • Mycoplasma genitalium
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Bacillus halodurans
  • Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Bacillus clausii
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • Lactococcus lactis
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Thermotoga maritima
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Group 7
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Streptococcus thermophilus
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Bacteroides fragilis
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Listeria innocua
  • Corynebacterium jeikeium
  • Lactobacillus sakei
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus sanguinis
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Lactobacillus brevis
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
  • Lactococcus lactis
  • Streptococcus gordonii
  • Staphylococcus haemolyticus
  • Group 10
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Burkholderia multivorans
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Enterobacter
  • Staphylococcus haemolyticus
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • Group 115
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Group 5
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Bifidobacterium adolescentis
  • Chloroflexus aurantiacus
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Saccharophagus degradans
  • Cytophaga hutchinsonii
  • Bacteroides fragilis
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Enterobacter
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • Gramella forsetii
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Bifidobacterium longum
  • Colwellia psychrerythraea
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Peptoclostridium difficile
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
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