SUBSTRATA MAIN PAGE


Bacillus

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Bacilli -> Bacillales -> Bacillaceae -> Bacillus

OVERVIEW:

'Bacillus' is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes (oxygen reliant), or facultative anaerobes (having the ability to be aerobic or anaerobic). They will test positive for the enzyme catalase when there has been oxygen used or present. Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living (nonparasitic) and parasitic pathogenic species. Under stressful environmental conditions, the bacteria can produce oval endospores that are not true 'spores', but to which the bacteria can reduce themselves and remain in a dormant state for very long periods. These characteristics originally defined the genus, but not all such species are closely related, and many have been moved to other genera of the Firmicutes. Many species of Bacillus can produce copious amounts of enzymes which are made use of in different industries. Some species can form intracellular inclusions of polyhydroxyalkanoates under certain adverse environmental conditions, as in a lack of elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, or oxygen combined with an excessive supply of carbon sources. B.subtilis has proved a valuable model for research. Other species of Bacillus are important pathogens, causing anthrax and food poisoning.

Cells rod-shaped, straight or slightly curved, occurring singly and in pairs, some in chains, and occasionally as long filaments. Endospores are formed, no more than one to a cell; these spores are very resistant to many adverse conditions. Gram-positive, or Gram-positive only in early stages of growth, or Gram-negative. A meso-DAP direct murein cross-linkage type is commonest, but l-Lys-d-Glu, Orn-d-Glu and l-Orn-d-Asp have occasionally been reported. Motile by means of peritrichous or degenerately peritrichous flagella, or nonmotile. Aerobes or facultative anaerobes, but a few species are described as strictly anaerobic. The terminal electron acceptor is oxygen, replaceable by alternatives in some species. Most species will grow on routine media such as nutrient agar and blood agar. Colony morphology and size very variable between and within species. A wide diversity of physiological abilities is exhibited, ranging from psychrophilic to thermophilic, and acidophilic to alkaliphilic; some strains are salt tolerant and some are halophilic. Catalase is produced by most species. Oxidase-positive or -negative. Chemo-organotrophic; two species are facultative chemolithotrophs: prototrophs to auxotrophs requiring several growth factors. Mostly isolated from soil, or from environments that may have been contaminated directly or indirectly by soil, but also found in water, food and clinical specimens. The resistance of the spores to heat, radiation, disinfectants, and desiccation results in species being troublesome contaminants in operating rooms, on surgical dressings, in pharmaceutical products and in foods. Most species have little or no pathogenic potential and are rarely associated with disease in humans or other animals; an exception is Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax; several other species may cause food poisoning and opportunistic infections, and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis are pathogenic to invertebrates.DNA G + C content (mol%): 32–66 (Tm ). Type species: Bacillus subtilis

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]



Microbial Abundance Data: Bacillus
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.001 %
(0.005)
0.000 %
(0.004)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.002 %
(0.012)
0.002 %
(0.020)
0.001 %
(0.010)
0.000 %
(0.003)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.006 %
(0.064)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.000 %
(0.000)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
  • Bacillus abyssalis
  • Bacillus acidiceler
  • Bacillus acidicola
  • Bacillus acidiproducens
  • Bacillus acidopullulyticus
  • Bacillus acidovorans
  • Bacillus aeolius
  • Bacillus aeris
  • Bacillus aerius
  • Bacillus aestuarii
  • Bacillus aidingensis
  • Bacillus akibai
  • Bacillus alcaliinulinus
  • Bacillus alcalophilus
  • Bacillus algicola
  • Bacillus alkalinitrilicus
  • Bacillus alkalisediminis
  • Bacillus alkalitelluris
  • Bacillus alkalitolerans
  • Bacillus alkalogaya
  • Bacillus altitudinis complex
  • Bacillus alveayuensis
  • Bacillus amiliensis
  • Bacillus andreesenii
  • Bacillus aporrhoeus
  • Bacillus aquimaris
  • Bacillus arbutinivorans
  • Bacillus aryabhattai
  • Bacillus asahii
  • Bacillus aurantiacus
  • Bacillus azotoformans
  • Bacillus badius
  • Bacillus baekryungensis
  • Bacillus bataviensis
  • Bacillus benzoevorans
  • Bacillus beringensis
  • Bacillus berkeleyi
  • Bacillus beveridgei
  • Bacillus bogoriensis
  • Bacillus bombysepticus
  • Bacillus borbori
  • Bacillus boroniphilus
  • Bacillus butanolivorans
  • Bacillus canaveralius
  • Bacillus carboniphilus
  • Bacillus casamancensis
  • Bacillus caseinilyticus
  • Bacillus catenulatus
  • Bacillus cavernae
  • Bacillus cecembensis
  • Bacillus cellulosilyticus
  • Bacillus cereus group
  • Bacillus cf. pumilus SG2
  • Bacillus chagannorensis
  • Bacillus chandigarhensis
  • Bacillus chungangensis
  • Bacillus cibi
  • Bacillus cihuensis
  • Bacillus circulans
  • Bacillus clausii
  • Bacillus coagulans
  • Bacillus coahuilensis
  • Bacillus cohnii
  • Bacillus composti
  • Bacillus coniferum
  • Bacillus crassostreae
  • Bacillus cucumis
  • Bacillus daliensis
  • Bacillus danangensis
  • Bacillus decisifrondis
  • Bacillus decolorationis
  • Bacillus deramificans
  • Bacillus deserti
  • Bacillus djibelorensis
  • Bacillus drentensis
  • Bacillus ectoiniformans
  • Bacillus eiseniae
  • Bacillus encimensis
  • Bacillus enclensis
  • Bacillus endophyticus
  • Bacillus endoradicis
  • Bacillus farraginis
  • Bacillus fastidiosus
  • Bacillus fengqiuensis
  • Bacillus ferrariarum
  • Bacillus filamentosus
  • Bacillus firmis
  • Bacillus firmus
  • Bacillus flavocaldarius
  • Bacillus flexus
  • Bacillus foraminis
  • Bacillus fordii
  • Bacillus fortis
  • Bacillus freudenreichii
  • Bacillus fucosivorans
  • Bacillus fumarioli
  • Bacillus funiculus
  • Bacillus galactosidilyticus
  • Bacillus galliciensis
  • Bacillus gibsonii
  • Bacillus ginsenggisoli
  • Bacillus ginsengihumi
  • Bacillus ginsengisoli
  • Bacillus glycinifermentans
  • Bacillus gobiensis
  • Bacillus gottheilii
  • Bacillus graminis
  • Bacillus granadensis
  • Bacillus hackensackii
  • Bacillus halmapalus
  • Bacillus halochares
  • Bacillus halodurans
  • Bacillus halosaccharovorans
  • Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus
  • Bacillus hemicentroti
  • Bacillus herbersteinensis
  • Bacillus horikoshii
  • Bacillus horneckiae
  • Bacillus horti
  • Bacillus huizhouensis
  • Bacillus humi
  • Bacillus hunanensis
  • Bacillus hwajinpoensis
  • Bacillus idriensis
  • Bacillus indicus
  • Bacillus infantis
  • Bacillus infernus
  • Bacillus intermedius
  • Bacillus iranensis
  • Bacillus isabeliae
  • Bacillus israeli
  • Bacillus jeotgali
  • Bacillus kochii
  • Bacillus kokeshiiformis
  • Bacillus koreensis
  • Bacillus korlensis
  • Bacillus kribbensis
  • Bacillus krulwichiae
  • Bacillus kyonggiensis
  • Bacillus lehensis
  • Bacillus lentus
  • Bacillus ligniniphilus
  • Bacillus litoralis
  • Bacillus locisalis
  • Bacillus lonarensis
  • Bacillus longiquaesitum
  • Bacillus longisporus
  • Bacillus luciferensis
  • Bacillus luteolus
  • Bacillus luteus
  • Bacillus malikii
  • Bacillus mangrovensis
  • Bacillus mannanilyticus
  • Bacillus marcorestinctum
  • Bacillus marisflavi
  • Bacillus marmarensis
  • Bacillus massilioanorexius
  • Bacillus massiliogorillae
  • Bacillus massiliosenegalensis
  • Bacillus megaterium
  • Bacillus meqaterium
  • Bacillus mesonae
  • Bacillus methanolicus
  • Bacillus muralis
  • Bacillus murimartini
  • Bacillus nanhaiisediminis
  • Bacillus nealsonii
  • Bacillus neizhouensis
  • Bacillus nematocida
  • Bacillus niabensis
  • Bacillus niacini
  • Bacillus niameyensis
  • Bacillus nitritophilus
  • Bacillus novalis
  • Bacillus oceani
  • Bacillus oceanisediminis
  • Bacillus ohbensis
  • Bacillus okhensis
  • Bacillus okuhidensis
  • Bacillus oleivorans
  • Bacillus oleronius
  • Bacillus olivae
  • Bacillus oryzae
  • Bacillus oryzaecorticis
  • Bacillus oshimensis
  • Bacillus pakistanensis
  • Bacillus panacisoli
  • Bacillus panaciterrae
  • Bacillus paraflexus
  • Bacillus patagoniensis
  • Bacillus persicus
  • Bacillus pervagus
  • Bacillus pichinotyi
  • Bacillus piscicola
  • Bacillus plakortidis
  • Bacillus pocheonensis
  • Bacillus polyfermenticus
  • Bacillus polygoni
  • Bacillus polymachus
  • Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus
  • Bacillus pseudofirmus
  • Bacillus pseudomegaterium
  • Bacillus pseudomycoides
  • Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus
  • Bacillus pumilus
  • Bacillus purgationiresistens
  • Bacillus qingdaonensis
  • Bacillus qingshengii
  • Bacillus racemilacticus
  • Bacillus rhizosphaerae
  • Bacillus rigiliprofundi
  • Bacillus rubiinfantis
  • Bacillus ruris
  • Bacillus safensis
  • Bacillus salarius
  • Bacillus saliphilus
  • Bacillus salmalaya
  • Bacillus salsus
  • Bacillus sediminis
  • Bacillus selenatarsenatis
  • Bacillus senegalensis
  • Bacillus seohaeanensis
  • Bacillus shacheensis
  • Bacillus shackletonii
  • Bacillus shandongensis
  • Bacillus siamensis
  • Bacillus similis
  • Bacillus simplex
  • Bacillus siralis
  • Bacillus smithii
  • Bacillus soli
  • Bacillus solimangrovi
  • Bacillus songklensis
  • Bacillus sp.
  • Bacillus sp. 2+3
  • Bacillus sp. 3EC3A1
  • Bacillus sp. CBMAI 1158
  • Bacillus sp. DHT-33
  • Bacillus sp. HC10.2Y2
  • Bacillus sp. HC15
  • Bacillus sp. N-16
  • Bacillus sp. T41
  • Bacillus sp.10 SA10
  • Bacillus sp.20R2
  • Bacillus sp.20R7
  • Bacillus sp.3.5R*5
  • Bacillus sp.7RP2-26
  • Bacillus sp.H-46
  • Bacillus sp.LW-10
  • Bacillus sp.LW-14
  • Bacillus sp.RP8
  • Bacillus sp.U0684
  • Bacillus sporothermodurans
  • Bacillus stamsii
  • Bacillus subterraneus
  • Bacillus subtilis group
  • Bacillus taeanensis
  • Bacillus taiwanensis
  • Bacillus tequilensi
  • Bacillus thaonhiensis
  • Bacillus thermoalkalophilus
  • Bacillus thermoamyloliquefaciens
  • Bacillus thermoamylovorans
  • Bacillus thermocopriae
  • Bacillus thermolactis
  • Bacillus thermophilus
  • Bacillus thermoproteolyticus
  • Bacillus thermoterrestris
  • Bacillus thermotolerans
  • Bacillus thermozeamaize
  • Bacillus thioparans
  • Bacillus tianmuensis
  • Bacillus tianshenii
  • Bacillus timonensis
  • Bacillus tipchiralis
  • Bacillus trypoxylicola
  • Bacillus vanillea
  • Bacillus vietnamensis
  • Bacillus vireti
  • Bacillus viscosus
  • Bacillus vitellinus
  • Bacillus wakoensis
  • Bacillus xiamenensis
  • Bacillus xiaoxiensis
  • Bacillus zhanjiangensis
  • [Brevibacterium] frigoritolerans
  • [Brevibacterium] halotolerans
  • environmental samples
  • unclassified Bacillus
  • INTERACTIONS
    KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Flagellar assembly
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Non-homologous end-joining
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Styrene degradation
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • L-Tryptophan

  • ENDPRODUCTS
  • Norepinephrine
  • Dopamine
  • Vitamin B12
  • ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
  • Tetracycline (tet_u4)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata1)
  • Streptogramin b (ermc)
  • Lincosamide (ermc)
  • Macrolide (ermc)
  • Streptogramin b (ermd)
  • Lincosamide (ermd)
  • Macrolide (ermd)
  • Fosfomycin (fosb)
  • Teicoplanin (vanz)
  • Paromomycin (aph3iiia)
  • Neomycin (aph3iiia)
  • Kanamycin (aph3iiia)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3iiia)
  • Lividomycin (aph3iiia)
  • Isepamicin (aph3iiia)
  • Butirosin (aph3iiia)
  • Amikacin (aph3iiia)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3iiia)
  • Vancomycin (vansa)
  • Teicoplanin (vansa)
  • Chloramphenicol (blt)
  • Doxorubicin (blt)
  • Fluoroquinolone (blt)
  • Puromycin (blt)
  • Streptogramin b (ermb)
  • Lincosamide (ermb)
  • Macrolide (ermb)
  • Vancomycin (vanya)
  • Teicoplanin (vanya)
  • Na antimicrobials (ykkd)
  • Na antimicrobials (ykkc)
  • Vancomycin (vanra)
  • Teicoplanin (vanra)
  • Penicillin (bl2a_iii2)
  • Butirosin (aph3iva)
  • Paromomycin (aph3iva)
  • Neomycin (aph3iva)
  • Kanamycin (aph3iva)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3iva)
  • Lincomycin (lmrb)
  • Chloramphenicol (bmr)
  • Fluoroquinolone (bmr)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata6)
  • Tetracycline (tetl)
  • Tetracycline (tetm)
  • Vancomycin (vana)
  • Teicoplanin (vana)
  • Vancomycin (vanxa)
  • Teicoplanin (vanxa)
  • Penicillin (bl2a_1)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata10)
  • Tunicamycin (tmrb)
  • Tetracycline (teta)
  • Vancomycin (vanha)
  • Teicoplanin (vanha)
  • Penicillin (bl2a_iii)
  • Tobramycin (aadd)
  • Kanamycin (aadd)
  • Bacitracin (bcra)
  • Bleomycin (ble)
  • Bacitracin (bcrc)
  • BIOFILM FORMERS   COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

    SUBSTRATA ™ IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK ® OF DATAPUNK BIOINFORMATICS, LLC. COPYRIGHT © 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.    |    DEVELOPER BLOG     |