SUBSTRATA MAIN PAGE


Treponema

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Spirochaetes -> Spirochaetia -> Spirochaetales -> Spirochaetaceae -> Treponema

OVERVIEW:

Host-associated, helical cells 0.1–0.7 μm in diameter and 1–20 μm in length. Cells have tight regular or irregular spirals and one or more periplasmic flagella (axial fibrils or axial filaments) inserted at each end of the protoplasmic cylinder. Cytoplasmic filaments are seen in the protoplasmic cylinder just under the cytoplasmic membrane and running parallel with the periplasmic flagella. Under unfavorable cultural or environmental conditions, spherical cells are formed. These can also be seen in old cultures. Gram-stain-negative. Cells stain well with silver impregnation methods. Most species stain poorly, if at all, with Gram or Giemsa stain. Best observed with darkfield or phase-contrast microscopy. Motile. Cells have rotational movement in liquid media, and translational motion in media with high viscosity [e.g., those containing 1% (w/v) methyl cellulose]. In a semisolid or solid medium, cells exhibit a serpentine type movement, sometimes referred to as creeping motility. Strictly anaerobic or microaerophilic. Frank pathogens (Treponema pallidum subspecies, Treponema carateum, and the rabbit pathogen Treponema paraluiscuniculi) represent a closely related subset within this genus and are considered microaerophiles. Limited multiplication of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strains has been obtained in a tissue culture system, but none of the pathogenic Treponema have been cultivated continuously in artificial media or in tissue culture. Chemo-organotrophs, using a variety of carbohydrates or amino acids for carbon and energy sources. Cultivated anaerobic species are catalase- and oxidase-negative. Some require long-chain fatty acids found in serum for growth, while other cultivated species require short-chain volatile fatty acids for growth. Host-associated. Pathogenic Treponema pallidum subspecies cause skin lesions, and Treponema pallidum (particularly subspecies pallidum) can cause systemic infections that, if untreated, can last for years to decades. Other species are found in the oral cavity, intestinal tract, and genital areas of humans or other mammals, and in the gut contents of wood-feeding insects.DNA G+C content (mol%): 37–54.Type species: Treponema pallidum

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]



Microbial Abundance Data: Treponema
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.052 %
(0.141)
0.098 %
(0.300)
0.004 %
(0.013)
0.054 %
(0.110)
0.296 %
(0.729)
0.203 %
(0.633)
0.572 %
(1.419)
0.057 %
(0.125)
0.353 %
(0.740)
1.432 %
(2.783)
0.626 %
(1.488)
2.239 %
(4.079)
0.000 %
(0.001)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
  • Candidatus Treponema suis
  • Treponema amylovorum
  • Treponema azotonutricium
  • Treponema berlinense
  • Treponema brennaborense
  • Treponema bryantii
  • Treponema caldarium
  • Treponema calligyrum
  • Treponema denticola
  • Treponema endosymbiont of Eucomonympha sp.
  • Treponema endosymbiont of Teranympha mirabilis
  • Treponema isoptericolens
  • Treponema lecithinolyticum
  • Treponema maltophilum
  • Treponema medium
  • Treponema minutum
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Treponema paraluiscuniculi
  • Treponema paraluisleporis
  • Treponema parvum
  • Treponema pectinovorum
  • Treponema pedis
  • Treponema phagedenis
  • Treponema porcinum
  • Treponema primitia
  • Treponema putidum
  • Treponema refringens
  • Treponema saccharophilum
  • Treponema socranskii
  • Treponema sp.
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 226
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 227
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 228
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 230
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 231
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 232
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 234
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 235
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 236
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 237
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 238
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 239
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 242
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 246
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 247
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 249
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 250
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 251
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 252
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 253
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 254
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 255
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 256
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 257
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 258
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 260
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 262
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 263
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 264
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 265
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 268
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 270
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 271
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 490
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 508
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 517
  • Treponema sp. oral taxon 518
  • Treponema stenostreptum
  • Treponema succinifaciens
  • Treponema vincentii
  • Treponema zioleckii
  • Treponema zuelzerae
  • environmental samples
  • INTERACTIONS
    KEGG PATHWAYS
  • ABC transporters
  • Acarbose and validamycin biosynthesis
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Flagellar assembly
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • Quorum sensing00253
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES

    ENDPRODUCTS
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
    BIOFILM FORMERS   COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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