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Listeria

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Bacilli -> Bacillales -> Listeriaceae -> Listeria

OVERVIEW:

Regular, short rods, 0.4–0.5 × 1–2 µm with parallel sides and blunt ends. Usually occur singly or in short chains. In older or rough cultures, filaments of ≥6 µm in length may develop. Gram-positive with even staining, but some cells, especially in older cultures, lose their ability to retain the Gram strain. Not acid-fast. Capsules not formed. Do not form spores. All species motile with peritrichous flagella when cultured <30°C. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic. Colonies (24–48 h) are 0.5–1.5 mm in diameter, round, translucent, low convex with a smooth surface and entire margin, non-pigmented with a crystalline central appearance. May be sticky when removed from agar surfaces, usually emulsify easily, and may leave a slight impression on the agar surface after removal. Older cultures (3–7 d) are larger, 3–5 mm in diameter, have a more opaque appearance, sometimes with a sunken center: rough colonial forms may develop. In 0.25% (w/v) agar, 8% (w/v) gelatin and 1.0% (w/v) glucose semi-solid medium, growth along the stab after 24 h at 37°C is followed by irregular, cloudy extensions into the medium. Growth spreads slowly through the entire medium. An umbrella-like zone of maximal growth occurs 3–5 mm below the surface. Temperature limits of growth <0 to 45°C; optimal growth at 30–37°C. Do not survive heating at 60°C for 30 min. Growth occurs between pH 6 and pH 9. Growth occurs in nutrient broth supplemented with up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. Catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. Cytochromes produced. Homofermentative anaerobic catabolism of glucose results in production of l(+)-lactic acid, acetic acid plus other end products. Acid but no gas produced from other sugars. Methyl-red-positive, Voges–Proskauer-positive. Exogenous citrate not utilized. Organic growth factors are required. Indole is not produced. Esculin and sodium hippurate are hydrolyzed. Urea is not hydrolyzed. Gelatin, casein, and milk are not hydrolyzed.

DNA G+C content (mol%): 36–42.5 (Tm).

Type species: Listeria monocytogenes



Microbial Abundance Data: Listeria
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.000 %
(0.004)
0.001 %
(0.005)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.001 %
(0.007)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Flagellar assembly
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Secondary bile acid biosynthesis
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Styrene degradation
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Xylene degradation
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

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