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Mycobacterium

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Actinobacteria -> Actinobacteria -> Corynebacteriales -> Mycobacteriaceae -> Mycobacterium

OVERVIEW:

Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. The genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae). The Greek prefix myco- means "fungus," alluding to the way mycobacteria have been observed to grow in a mold-like fashion on the surface of cultures. (Mycobacteria are not, however, fungi, which are eukaryotes, while all bacteria are prokaryotes.) Mycobacteria are aerobic and nonmotile bacteria (except for the species Mycobacterium marinum, which has been shown to be motile within macrophages) that are characteristically acid fast. Mycobacteria have an outer membrane. They do not have capsules, and most do not form endospores. Mycobacterium marinum and perhaps M. bovis have been shown to sporulate; however, this has been contested by further research. The distinguishing characteristic of all Mycobacterium species is that the cell wall is thicker than in many other bacteria, which is hydrophobic, waxy, and rich in mycolic acids/mycolates. The cell wall consists of the hydrophobic mycolate layer and a peptidoglycan layer held together by a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan. The cell wall makes a substantial contribution to the hardiness of this genus. The biosynthetic pathways of cell wall components are potential targets for new drugs for tuberculosis. Many Mycobacterium species adapt readily to growth on very simple substrates, using ammonia or amino acids as nitrogen sources and glycerol as a carbon source in the presence of mineral salts. Optimum growth temperatures vary widely according to the species and range from 25 °C to over 50 °C.

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]



Microbial Abundance Data: Mycobacterium
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.001 %
(0.005)
0.001 %
(0.009)
0.000 %
(0.004)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.001 %
(0.008)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
  • Mycobacterium JC2972
  • Mycobacterium VN15-3
  • Mycobacterium acapulcensis
  • Mycobacterium aemonae
  • Mycobacterium agri
  • Mycobacterium aichiense
  • Mycobacterium album
  • Mycobacterium alsiense
  • Mycobacterium alvei
  • Mycobacterium angelicum
  • Mycobacterium anthracenicum
  • Mycobacterium arabiense
  • Mycobacterium aromaticivorans
  • Mycobacterium asiaticum
  • Mycobacterium aubagnense
  • Mycobacterium aurum
  • Mycobacterium austroafricanum
  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
  • Mycobacterium bacteremicum
  • Mycobacterium barrassiae
  • Mycobacterium boenickei
  • Mycobacterium bohemicum
  • Mycobacterium botniense
  • Mycobacterium bourgelatii
  • Mycobacterium branderi
  • Mycobacterium brasiliensis
  • Mycobacterium brisbanense
  • Mycobacterium brumae
  • Mycobacterium buckleii
  • Mycobacterium canariasense
  • Mycobacterium celatum
  • Mycobacterium celeriflavum
  • Mycobacterium cf. triplex
  • Mycobacterium cf. triplex 'isolate 23'
  • Mycobacterium cf. xenopi 'Hymi_Wue Tb_939/99'
  • Mycobacterium chelonae
  • Mycobacterium chelonae group
  • Mycobacterium chesapeaki
  • Mycobacterium chitae
  • Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum
  • Mycobacterium chubuense
  • Mycobacterium coloregonium
  • Mycobacterium columbarii
  • Mycobacterium conceptionense
  • Mycobacterium confluentis
  • Mycobacterium conspicuum
  • Mycobacterium cookii
  • Mycobacterium cosmeticum
  • Mycobacterium crocinum
  • Mycobacterium diernhoferi
  • Mycobacterium doricum
  • Mycobacterium duvalii
  • Mycobacterium elephantis
  • Mycobacterium engbaekii
  • Mycobacterium europaeum
  • Mycobacterium fallax
  • Mycobacterium farcinogenes
  • Mycobacterium flavescens
  • Mycobacterium florentinum
  • Mycobacterium fluoranthenivorans
  • Mycobacterium fortuitum
  • Mycobacterium fragae
  • Mycobacterium frederiksbergense
  • Mycobacterium fuerthensis
  • Mycobacterium gadium
  • Mycobacterium gallinarum
  • Mycobacterium gastri
  • Mycobacterium genavense
  • Mycobacterium gilvum
  • Mycobacterium goodii
  • Mycobacterium gordonae
  • Mycobacterium hackensackense
  • Mycobacterium haemophilum
  • Mycobacterium hassiacum
  • Mycobacterium heckeshornense
  • Mycobacterium heidelbergense
  • Mycobacterium heraklionense
  • Mycobacterium hippocampi
  • Mycobacterium hodleri
  • Mycobacterium holsaticum
  • Mycobacterium houstonense
  • Mycobacterium insubricum
  • Mycobacterium interjectum
  • Mycobacterium intermedium
  • Mycobacterium iranicum
  • Mycobacterium isoniacini
  • Mycobacterium jacuzzii
  • Mycobacterium kansasii
  • Mycobacterium komossense
  • Mycobacterium koreense
  • Mycobacterium kubicae
  • Mycobacterium kuopiense
  • Mycobacterium kyorinense
  • Mycobacterium lacticola
  • Mycobacterium lactis
  • Mycobacterium lacus
  • Mycobacterium lentiflavum
  • Mycobacterium leprae
  • Mycobacterium lepraemurium
  • Mycobacterium lepromatosis
  • Mycobacterium liflandii
  • Mycobacterium litorale
  • Mycobacterium llatzerense
  • Mycobacterium longobardum
  • Mycobacterium lufu
  • Mycobacterium madagascariense
  • Mycobacterium mageritense
  • Mycobacterium malmoense
  • Mycobacterium manitobense
  • Mycobacterium marinum
  • Mycobacterium minnesotense
  • Mycobacterium monacense
  • Mycobacterium montefiorense
  • Mycobacterium moriokaense
  • Mycobacterium mucogenicum
  • Mycobacterium murale
  • Mycobacterium nebraskense
  • Mycobacterium neglectum
  • Mycobacterium neoaurum
  • Mycobacterium neworleansense
  • Mycobacterium noviomagense
  • Mycobacterium novocastrense
  • Mycobacterium obuense
  • Mycobacterium pallens
  • Mycobacterium palustre
  • Mycobacterium paraense
  • Mycobacterium paraffinicum
  • Mycobacterium parafortuitum
  • Mycobacterium paragordonae
  • Mycobacterium parakoreense
  • Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum
  • Mycobacterium paraseoulense
  • Mycobacterium parmense
  • Mycobacterium peregrinum
  • Mycobacterium petroleophilum
  • Mycobacterium phlei
  • Mycobacterium phocaicum
  • Mycobacterium piscinum
  • Mycobacterium porcinum
  • Mycobacterium poriferae
  • Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii
  • Mycobacterium psychrotolerans
  • Mycobacterium pulveris
  • Mycobacterium pyrenivorans
  • Mycobacterium rhodesiae
  • Mycobacterium riyadhense
  • Mycobacterium rufum
  • Mycobacterium rutilum
  • Mycobacterium sacrum
  • Mycobacterium salmoniphilum
  • Mycobacterium saskatchewanense
  • Mycobacterium savoniae
  • Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
  • Mycobacterium sediminis
  • Mycobacterium senegalense
  • Mycobacterium seoulense
  • Mycobacterium septicum
  • Mycobacterium setense
  • Mycobacterium sherrisii
  • Mycobacterium shimoidei
  • Mycobacterium shinjukuense
  • Mycobacterium shottsii
  • Mycobacterium siernhoferi
  • Mycobacterium simiae
  • Mycobacterium simulans
  • Mycobacterium sinense
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis
  • Mycobacterium sp.
  • Mycobacterium sp. KNUC287
  • Mycobacterium sp. Site4-B36
  • Mycobacterium sp. UNC410CL29Cvi84
  • Mycobacterium sphagni
  • Mycobacterium stomatepiae
  • Mycobacterium suricattae
  • Mycobacterium sydneyiensis
  • Mycobacterium szulgai
  • Mycobacterium terrae complex
  • Mycobacterium thermoresistibile
  • Mycobacterium tilburgii
  • Mycobacterium tokaiense
  • Mycobacterium triplex
  • Mycobacterium triviale
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
  • Mycobacterium tusciae
  • Mycobacterium ulcerans
  • Mycobacterium vaccae
  • Mycobacterium vanbaalenii
  • Mycobacterium visibile
  • Mycobacterium wolinskyi
  • Mycobacterium xenopi
  • Mycobacterium yunnanensis
  • environmental samples
  • INTERACTIONS
    KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Caprolactam degradation
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Fluorobenzoate degradation
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Proteasome
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Steroid degradation
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Styrene degradation
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Toluene degradation
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Tuberculosis
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    Group 74
  • Arthrobacter aurescens
  • Nocardioides
  • Mycobacterium vanbaalenii
  • Mycobacterium
  • Group 35
  • Burkholderia xenovorans
  • Xanthobacter autotrophicus
  • Nocardioides
  • Acidobacteria bacterium
  • Rhodococcus
  • Sphingomonas wittichii
  • Marinomonas
  • Mycobacterium
  • Acinetobacter
  • Alcanivorax borkumensis
  • Group 11
  • Xanthobacter autotrophicus
  • Nocardioides
  • Pseudomonas syringae
  • Arthrobacter
  • Pseudomonas mendocina
  • Rhodococcus
  • Ralstonia eutropha
  • Burkholderia cepacia
  • Mycobacterium
  • Acinetobacter
  • Alcanivorax borkumensis
  • Burkholderia
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus
  • Polaromonas naphthalenivorans
  • Vibrio fischeri
  • Acidovorax
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Pseudomonas putida
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • Caulobacter crescentus
  • Serratia proteamaculans
  • Group 18
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium avium
  • Mycobacterium ulcerans
  • Leifsonia xyli
  • Mycobacterium bovis
  • Mycobacterium leprae
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis
  • Mycobacterium
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • Ammonia

  • ENDPRODUCTS
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   BIOFILM FORMERS   COGEM PATHOGENICITY   
  • Mycobacterium phlei (2)
  • Mycobacterium abscessus (2)
  • Mycobacterium rhodesiae (2)
  • Mycobacterium liflandii (2)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis bovis africanum canetti (3)
  • Mycobacterium thermoresistibile (2)
  • Mycobacterium sp JLS (2)
  • Mycobacterium chubuense (2)
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis (2)
  • Mycobacterium indicus pranii (2)
  • Mycobacterium gilvum (2)
  • Mycobacterium vanbaalenii (2)
  • Mycobacterium kansasii (2)
  • Mycobacterium marinum (2)
  • Mycobacterium vaccae (2)
  • Mycobacterium sp JDM601 (2)
  • Mycobacterium yongonense (2)
  • Mycobacterium sp MOTT36Y (2)
  • Mycobacterium orygis (2)
  • Mycobacterium fortuitum (2)
  • Mycobacterium intracellulare (2)
  • Mycobacterium ulcerans (3)
  • Mycobacterium colombiense (2)
  • Mycobacterium sp 012931 (2)
  • Mycobacterium xenopi (2)
  • Mycobacterium hassiacum (2)
  • Mycobacterium avium (2)
  • Mycobacterium mageritense (2)
  • Mycobacterium tusciae (2)
  • Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum (2)
  • Mycobacterium sp KMS (2)
  • Mycobacterium leprae (3)
  • Mycobacterium sp MCS (2)

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