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Clostridiales

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TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Clostridia -> Clostridiales

OVERVIEW:

The 'Clostridia' are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. They are distinguished from the Bacilli by lacking aerobic respiration. They are obligate anaerobes and oxygen is toxic to them. Species of the genus Clostridium are all Gram-positive and have the ability to form spores. Studies show they are not a monophyletic group, and their relationships are not entirely certain. Currently most are placed in a single order called Clostridiales, but this is not a natural group and is likely to be redefined in the future. Most species of the genus Clostridium are saprophytic organisms found in many places in the environment, most notably the soil. However, the genus does contain some human pathogens (outlined below). The toxins produced by certain members of the Clostridium genus are among the most dangerous known. Examples are tetanus toxin (known as tetanospasmin) produced by C. tetani and botulinum toxin produced by C. botulinum. Some species have been isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis. Notable species of this class include: *Clostridium perfringens (Gangrene, Food poisoning) *Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis) *Clostridium tetani (Tetanus) *Clostridium botulinum (Botulism) *Clostridium acetobutylicum *Clostridium haemolyticum *Clostridium novyi *Clostridium novyi Clostridium oedematiens Heliobacteria are also members of the class Clostridia. Some of the enzymes produced by this group are used in bioremediation.

Specific differences have been found in blood group A-secretors demonstrating higher abundances of members of the Clostridiales family. [PMCID: PMC5625272]



Microbial Abundance Data: Clostridiales
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
7.395 %
(5.930)
5.269 %
(4.589)
6.241 %
(6.893)
10.674 %
(6.309)
18.738 %
(8.114)
17.328 %
(8.163)
16.211 %
(7.863)
17.452 %
(7.169)
23.961 %
(9.260)
8.289 %
(5.785)
7.000 %
(4.795)
9.577 %
(6.775)
28.500 %
(18.601)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS

CLUSTERS WITH
METABOLOMICS       
NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES

ENDPRODUCTS
  • Butyrate [parent]
  • Butyrate
  • ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
    BIOFILM FORMERS   
    COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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