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Azospirillum

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Alphaproteobacteria -> Rhodospirillales -> Rhodospirillaceae -> Azospirillum

OVERVIEW:

Plump, slightly-curved and straight rods, 0.6–1.7 × 2.1–3.8 µm, often with pointed ends. Intracellular granules of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate are present. Enlarged, pleomorphic forms may occur in old, alkaline cultures, under conditions of excess oxygen or other stress. Gram negative to Gram variable. Motile in liquid media by a single polar flagellum; on solid media at 30°C, numerous lateral flagella of shorter wavelength may also be formed. Nitrogen fixers, exhibiting N2-dependent growth under microaerobic conditions. Grow well under an air atmosphere in the presence of a source of fixed nitrogen such as an ammonium or glutamate salts. Cells previously grown in presence of an inorganic nitrogen source may fix nitrogen in air provided that all added nitrogen is exhausted and nitrogenase is derepressed. Possess mainly a respiratory type of metabolism with oxygen and, with some strains, nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor. Fermentative metabolism may also occur. Under severe oxygen limitation, some strains may dissimilate nitrate to nitrite or to nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas. Optimal temperature for growth varies from 33 to 41°C and pH from 5.5 to 7.5. Some strains may grow and form light or dark pink colonies, often wrinkled and non-slimy, on potato agar. Oxidase positive. Chemoorganotrophic; some strains are facultative hydrogen autotrophs. Grow well on salts of organic acids such as malate, succinate, lactate or pyruvate. d-fructose and certain carbohydrates may also serve as carbon sources. Some species require biotin. Growth in presence of 3% NaCl has been observed for some species. Occur free-living in the soil or associated with the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds mainly of cereals and forage grasses, although they have also been isolated from coconut plants, vegetables, fruits, legume, and tuber plants. May also be found in freshwater lakes. Root nodules are not induced.

The mol% G + C of the DNA is: 64–71.

Type species: Azospirillum lipoferum



TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Acarbose and validamycin biosynthesis
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Atrazine degradation
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Caprolactam degradation
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Carotenoid biosynthesis
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Ethylbenzene degradation
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Flagellar assembly
  • Fluorobenzoate degradation
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Furfural degradation
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nitrotoluene degradation
  • Nonribosomal peptide structures
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • Quorum sensing00253
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Styrene degradation
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Toluene degradation
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Xylene degradation
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • Lactate
  • Succinate
  • Pyruvate
  • D-Fructose
  • Malate

  • ENDPRODUCTS
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
    BIOFILM FORMERS   COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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