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TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> delta/epsilon subdivisions -> Deltaproteobacteria -> Desulfovibrionales -> Desulfovibrionaceae -> Bilophila
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria, including B. wadsworthia, which causes intra-abdominal and other infections. Synonyms: Bilophila Baron. Researchers found that an uncommon microbe called Bilophila wadsworthia was preferentially selected in the presence of milk fat. Previous studies had found high levels of B. wadsworthia in patients with appendicitis and other intestinal inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Regularly shaped rods 0.7–1.0 × 1.0–2.0 μm when grown in peptone–yeast glucose broth with 1% pyruvate. Rods have rounded ends and occasionally form long filaments, but no internal structures are visible by light microscopy. Cells do not possess pili or flagella and are nonmotile. Nonsporeforming. Gram negative. Anaerobic. Nonfermentative; metabolism is by anaerobic respiration. Chemoorganotrophs. Growth is enhanced by 20% bile and 1% pyruvate. Metabolizes peptone but not carbohydrates. The major product from peptone is acetic acid with lesser to trace amounts of succinic acid. Able to reduce nitrate to nitrite; some strains reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas. Hydrogen sulfide is produced from sulfur-containing amino acids, but the organisms do not reduce sulfur. In the presence of formate, B. wadsworthia utilizes taurine as an electron acceptor, oxidizing it to acetate with the reduction of sulfonate sulfur to sulfide. Strongly catalase positive (when tested with 15% H2O2). Approximately 75–90% of strains produce urease, depending on the test system. (Claros et al., 1999). In the presence of formate, B. wadsworthia utilizes taurine as an electron acceptor, with the production of acetate and the reduction of sulfonate sulfur to sulfide (Laue et al., 1997; Cook et al., 1999). The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) of B. wadsworthia is related to that of Desulfovibrio (Laue et al., 2001). Isolated from gastrointestinal, genital, and oral (periodontal) cavities of humans and other mammals (dogs).
The mol% G + C of the DNA is: 59.2 (HPLC).
Type species: Bilophila wadsworthia
This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]