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Enterobacter

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Enterobacteriales -> Enterobacteriaceae -> Enterobacter

OVERVIEW:

Enterobacter is a genus of common Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Several strains of these bacteria are pathogenic and cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised (usually hospitalized) hosts and in those who are on mechanical ventilation. The urinary and respiratory tracts are the most common sites of infection. The genus Enterobacter is a member of the coliform group of bacteria. It does not belong to the fecal coliforms (or thermotolerant coliforms) group of bacteria, unlike Escherichia coli, because it is incapable of growth at 44.5 °C in the presence of bile salts. Some of them showed quorum sensing properties as reported before Two clinically important species from this genus are E. aerogenes and E. cloacae. A recent study has shown that the presence of Enterobacter cloacae B29 in the gut of a morbidly obese individual may have contributed to the patient’s obesity. Reduction of the bacterial load within the patient’s gut, from 35% E. cloacae B29 to non-detectable levels, was associated with a parallel reduction in endotoxin load in the patient and a concomitant, significant reduction in weight. Furthermore, the same bacterial strain, isolated from the patient, induced obesity and insulin resistance in germfree C57BL/6J mice that were being fed a high-fat diet. The study concludes that E. cloacae B29 may contribute to obesity in its human hosts through an endotoxin-induced, inflammation-mediated mechanism. Straight rods, 0.6–1.0 × 1.2–3.0 µm, conforming to the general definition of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Motile by peritrichous flagella (generally 4–6). Gram negative. Facultatively anaerobic. Growth occurs readily on ordinary media. Glucose is fermented with production of acid and gas (generally CO2:H2 = 2:1). Gas is not produced from glucose at 44.5°C. Most strains give a positive Voges–Proskauer reaction and a negative methyl red test. An alkaline reaction occurs in Simmons citrate and malonate broth. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite. H2S is not produced from thiosulfate. Tetrathionate is not reduced. Corn oil and tributyrin are not hydrolyzed. Gelatin, DNA, and Tween 80 are either not, or very slowly, hydrolyzed. l-Arabinose, d-cellobiose, d-fructose, d-galactose, d-galacturonate, gentiobiose, d-gluconate, d-glucosamine, d-glucose, d-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, l-malate, d-mannitol, d-mannose, d-trehalose, and d-xylose utilized by all or almost all strains, as sole source of carbon and energy. l-rhamnose utilized by all strains except Enterobacter asburiae. l-Arabitol, ethanolamine, itaconate, 3-phenylpropionate, l-sorbose, d-tartrate, tryptamine, and xylitol are not utilized. meso-Erythritol, gentisate, glutarate, and tricarballylate not utilized except by some strains of Enterobacter gergoviae. d-melezitose not utilized except by some strains of Enterobacter sakazakii. Optimum temperature for growth is 30°C. Most clinical strains grow at 37°C; some environmental strains give erratic biochemical reactions at 37°C. Widely distributed in nature; common in man and animals.The mol% G + C of the DNA is: 52–60 (Bd).Type species: Enterobacter cloacae

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]



Microbial Abundance Data: Enterobacter
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.003 %
(0.023)
0.004 %
(0.028)
0.001 %
(0.005)
0.006 %
(0.038)
0.002 %
(0.009)
0.003 %
(0.020)
0.001 %
(0.004)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.002 %
(0.012)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.003)
0.002 %
(0.013)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Atrazine degradation
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Caprolactam degradation
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Ether lipid metabolism
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Flagellar assembly
  • Fluorobenzoate degradation
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nitrotoluene degradation
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Toluene degradation
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    Group 103
  • Enterobacter
  • Acidovorax
  • Acinetobacter
  • Group 102
  • Serratia proteamaculans
  • Enterobacter
  • Shigella boydii
  • Group 10
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Burkholderia multivorans
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Enterobacter
  • Staphylococcus haemolyticus
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • Group 54
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Haemophilus ducreyi
  • Dichelobacter nodosus
  • Enterobacter
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Group 5
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Bifidobacterium adolescentis
  • Chloroflexus aurantiacus
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Saccharophagus degradans
  • Cytophaga hutchinsonii
  • Bacteroides fragilis
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Enterobacter
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • Gramella forsetii
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Bifidobacterium longum
  • Colwellia psychrerythraea
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Peptoclostridium difficile
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
  • METABOLOMICS       
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
  • Aminoglycoside (acrb)
  • Glycylcycline (acrb)
  • Macrolide (acrb)
  • Beta lactam (acrb)
  • Acriflavin (acrb)
  • Chloramphenicol (cml_e1)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrb)
  • Cephalosproin (bl2f_nmca)
  • Penicillin (bl2f_nmca)
  • Carbapenem (bl2f_nmca)
  • Sulfonamide (sul1)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_shv2)
  • E cephalosproin (bl2be_shv2)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_shv2)
  • N cephalosproin (bl2be_shv2)
  • Erythromycin (erea)
  • Spectinomycin (ant3ia)
  • Streptomycin (ant3ia)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_fox)
  • Tobramycin (aac6ib)
  • Netilmicin (aac6ib)
  • Isepamicin (aac6ib)
  • Amikacin (aac6ib)
  • Sisomicin (aac6ib)
  • Dibekacin (aac6ib)
  • Trimethoprim (dfrb3)
  • Cephamycin (bl2_kpc)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_kpc)
  • Penicillin (bl2_kpc)
  • Carbapenem (bl2_kpc)
  • Deoxycholate (mdth)
  • Fosfomycin (mdth)
  • Tobramycin (ant2ia)
  • Sisomicin (ant2ia)
  • Kanamycin (ant2ia)
  • Gentamicin (ant2ia)
  • Dibekacin (ant2ia)
  • Bacitracin (baca)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnra)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra15)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa2)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa2)
  • Sisomicin (aac3vi)
  • Gentamicin (aac3vi)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_mox)
  • Aminoglycoside (acra)
  • Glycylcycline (acra)
  • Macrolide (acra)
  • Beta lactam (acra)
  • Acriflavin (acra)
  • Tobramycin (aac6if)
  • Netilmicin (aac6if)
  • Isepamicin (aac6if)
  • Amikacin (aac6if)
  • Sisomicin (aac6if)
  • Dibekacin (aac6if)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa9)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa9)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_veb)
  • Penicillin (bl2_veb)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra1)
  • Macrolide (maca)
  • Macrolide (macb)
  • Kasugamycin (ksga)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_ampc)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrs)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra5)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_vim)
  • Cephalosporin (bl3_vim)
  • Penicillin (bl3_vim)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_vim)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin iii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Ceftazidime (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Aminoglycoside (tolc)
  • Glycylcycline (tolc)
  • Macrolide (tolc)
  • Beta lactam (tolc)
  • Acriflavin (tolc)
  • Enoxacin (mdtk)
  • Norfloxacin (mdtk)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra17)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2b_tem)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_ges)
  • Penicillin (bl2_ges)
  • Cephalosproin (bl3_imp)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_imp)
  • Penicillin (bl3_imp)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_imp)
  • Tobramycin (aac3iia)
  • Netilmicin (aac3iia)
  • Sisomicin (aac3iia)
  • Gentamicin (aac3iia)
  • Dibekacin (aac3iia)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2b_tem1)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem1)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2b_tem1)
  • Chloramphenicol (catb3)
  • Penicillin (bl2_len)
  • BIOFILM FORMERS   COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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