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Escherichia

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Enterobacteriales -> Enterobacteriaceae -> Escherichia

OVERVIEW:

'Escherichia' is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. Straight cylindrical rods, 1.1–1.5 × 2.0–6.0 µm, occurring singly or in pairs. Conform to the general definition of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Gram negative. Motile by peritrichous flagella or nonmotile. Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic having both a respiratory and a fermentative type of metabolism, but anaerogenic biotypes occur. Oxidase negative. Chemoorganotrophic. Both acid and gas are formed from most fermentable carbohydrates, but i-inositol is not utilized and d-adonitol is utilized only by Escherichia fergusonii. Lactose is fermented by most strains of Escherichia coli, but fermentation may be delayed or absent in Escherichia blattae, Escherichia hermannii, Escherichia fergusonii, and Escherichia vulneris. Do not grow in KCN (with the exception of E. hermannii and a small proportion of E. vulneris). Usually do not produce H2S. E. coli occur naturally in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals, E. blattae in the hind-gut of cockroaches, and E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris are found in the intestine, as well as extraintestinal sites of warm-blooded animals. Seven copies of the rrn operon with genes coding for 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA are present on the chromosome of E. coli. Comparative sequence analysis between the genes for 16S rRNA of E. coli, E. vulneris, and E. hermannii and homologous genes from all eubacteria places E. coli and E. vulneris together in a tightly related cluster with shigellae, and E. hermannii between Salmonella spp. and Citrobacter freundii (Cilia et al., 1996). Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, escherichiae belong in the Gammaproteobacteria.The mol% G + C of the DNA is: 48–59.Type species: Escherichia coli

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]

TAGS
Keystone Core species Type species Pathogen Dysbiosis associated Flora/ commensal Gut associated Probiotic
Leanness Obesity Skin microbiome Fecal distribution Oral microbiome Vaginal microbiome Butyrate producer Catalase producer
Histamine producer Food fermenter Amylolytic Propionate producer Nitrifying
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Caprolactam degradation
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Dioxin degradation
  • Ether lipid metabolism
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Flagellar assembly
  • Fluorobenzoate degradation
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nitrotoluene degradation
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Toluene degradation
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Xylene degradation
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • Iron supplements [parent]
  • Acetoin [parent]
  • Lactate

  • ENDPRODUCTS
  • 2,3-Butanediol [parent]
  • 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, Serotonin)

  • INHIBITED BY
  • Chemotherapy
  • Triphala
  • Garlic (allicin)
  • Allium sativa
  • Cinnamon bark oil
  • Resistant starch (type III)
  • Glycyrrhizic acid
  • Astragalus
  • Oplopanax horridus
  • Plantain bananas
  • Vitamin D
  • Pomegranate ellagitannins [parent]
  • Oregano essential oil
  • Ascophyllum nodosum (rockweed)
  • Lactobacillus reuteri

  • ENHANCED BY
  • Aspartame [parent]
  • Metformin

  • BIOTRANSFORMS

    BIOTRANFORM

    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • Aminoglycoside (acrb)
  • Glycylcycline (acrb)
  • Macrolide (acrb)
  • Beta lactam (acrb)
  • Acriflavin (acrb)
  • Macrolide (mpha)
  • Chloramphenicol (cml_e1)
  • Paromomycin (aph3ia)
  • Neomycin (aph3ia)
  • Kanamycin (aph3ia)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3ia)
  • Lividomycin (aph3ia)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3ia)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrb)
  • Polymyxin (arna)
  • Astromicin (aac3ia)
  • Sisomicin (aac3ia)
  • Gentamicin (aac3ia)
  • Sulfonamide (sul1)
  • Chloramphenicol (cml_e3)
  • Paromomycin (aph3iiia)
  • Neomycin (aph3iiia)
  • Kanamycin (aph3iiia)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3iiia)
  • Lividomycin (aph3iiia)
  • Isepamicin (aph3iiia)
  • Butirosin (aph3iiia)
  • Amikacin (aph3iiia)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3iiia)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_shv2)
  • E cephalosproin (bl2be_shv2)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_shv2)
  • N cephalosproin (bl2be_shv2)
  • Tobramycin (aac6ia)
  • Netilmicin (aac6ia)
  • Isepamicin (aac6ia)
  • Amikacin (aac6ia)
  • Sisomicin (aac6ia)
  • Dibekacin (aac6ia)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra13)
  • Tobramycin (aac6ib)
  • Netilmicin (aac6ib)
  • Isepamicin (aac6ib)
  • Amikacin (aac6ib)
  • Sisomicin (aac6ib)
  • Dibekacin (aac6ib)
  • Trimethoprim (dfrb3)
  • Chloramphenicol (cml_e2)
  • Cephamycin (bl2_kpc)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_kpc)
  • Penicillin (bl2_kpc)
  • Carbapenem (bl2_kpc)
  • Bacitracin (baca)
  • Streptomycin (aph6id)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnra)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa2)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa2)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_mox)
  • Sisomicin (aac3vi)
  • Gentamicin (aac3vi)
  • Aminoglycoside (emre)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata2)
  • Aminoglycoside (acra)
  • Glycylcycline (acra)
  • Macrolide (acra)
  • Beta lactam (acra)
  • Acriflavin (acra)
  • Erythromycin (ereb)
  • Tetracycline (tetm)
  • T chloride (mdto)
  • Acriflavine (mdto)
  • Puromycin (mdto)
  • Cephamycin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Cephalosporin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Ceftriaxone (bl1_cmy2)
  • Cefoxitin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Carbapenem (bl1_cmy2)
  • Ceftazidime (bl1_cmy2)
  • T chloride (mdtp)
  • Acriflavine (mdtp)
  • Puromycin (mdtp)
  • Doxorubicin (mdte)
  • Erythromycin (mdte)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_veb)
  • Penicillin (bl2_veb)
  • Kasugamycin (ksga)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrs)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra5)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_per)
  • E cephalosproin (bl2be_per)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_per)
  • N cephalosproin (bl2be_per)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2b_tem2)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem2)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2b_tem2)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin iii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Ceftazidime (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Aminoglycoside (tolc)
  • Glycylcycline (tolc)
  • Macrolide (tolc)
  • Beta lactam (tolc)
  • Acriflavin (tolc)
  • Sulfonamide (sul3)
  • Enoxacin (mdtk)
  • Norfloxacin (mdtk)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra17)
  • Macrolide (mphb)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_ges)
  • Penicillin (bl2_ges)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa1)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa1)
  • Tobramycin (aac3iia)
  • Netilmicin (aac3iia)
  • Sisomicin (aac3iia)
  • Gentamicin (aac3iia)
  • Dibekacin (aac3iia)
  • Chloramphenicol (catb3)
  • Paromomycin (aph3ic)
  • Neomycin (aph3ic)
  • Kanamycin (aph3ic)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3ic)
  • Lividomycin (aph3ic)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3ic)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2b_tem1)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem1)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2b_tem1)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra10)
  • Chloramphenicol (mdtl)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra16)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata1)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa10)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa10)
  • T chloride (mdtn)
  • Acriflavine (mdtn)
  • Puromycin (mdtn)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra7)
  • Chloramphenicol (mdtm)
  • Acriflavine (mdtm)
  • Norfloxacin (mdtm)
  • Spectinomycin (ant3ia)
  • Streptomycin (ant3ia)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra12)
  • Erythromycin (erea)
  • Doxorubicin (mdtf)
  • Erythromycin (mdtf)
  • Tetracycline (tetc)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_fox)
  • Streptogramin b (ermb)
  • Lincosamide (ermb)
  • Macrolide (ermb)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra14)
  • Deoxycholate (mdth)
  • Fosfomycin (mdth)
  • Paromomycin (aph3ib)
  • Neomycin (aph3ib)
  • Kanamycin (aph3ib)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3ib)
  • Lividomycin (aph3ib)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3ib)
  • Tobramycin (ant2ia)
  • Sisomicin (ant2ia)
  • Kanamycin (ant2ia)
  • Gentamicin (ant2ia)
  • Dibekacin (ant2ia)
  • Chloramphenicol (catb2)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra15)
  • Tetracycline (tete)
  • Deoxycholate (mdtg)
  • Fosfomycin (mdtg)
  • Trimethoprim (dfrb1)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_ec)
  • Sulfonamide (sul2)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra1)
  • Macrolide (maca)
  • Tetracycline (teta)
  • Macrolide (macb)
  • Cephalosporin (bl1_acc)
  • E penicillin (bl1_acc)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra22)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_ampc)
  • Tetracycline (tetb)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra24)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_vim)
  • Cephalosporin (bl3_vim)
  • Penicillin (bl3_vim)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_vim)
  • Tobramycin (aac3iv)
  • Netilmicin (aac3iv)
  • Sisomicin (aac3iv)
  • Gentamicin (aac3iv)
  • Dibekacin (aac3iv)
  • Apramycin (aac3iv)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2b_tem)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem)
  • Carbenicillin (bl2c_pse1)
  • Penicillin (bl2c_pse1)
  • Streptomycin (aph6ic)
  • Trimethoprim (dfrb2)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra26)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata3)
  • Streptomycin (aph33ib)

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