SUBSTRATA MAIN PAGE


Proteus

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Enterobacteriales -> Enterobacteriaceae -> Proteus

OVERVIEW:

Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria. Proteus bacilli are widely distributed in nature as saprophytes, being found in decomposing animal matter, sewage, manure soil, and human and animal feces. They are opportunistic pathogens, commonly responsible for urinary and septic infections, often nosocomial. Three species—P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. penneri—are opportunistic human pathogens. Proteus includes pathogens responsible for many human urinary tract infections. P. mirabilis causes wound and urinary tract infections. Most strains of P. mirabilis are sensitive to ampicillin and cephalosporins. P. vulgaris is not sensitive to these antibiotics. However, this organism is isolated less often in the laboratory and usually only targets immunosuppressed individuals. P. vulgaris occurs naturally in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, and in manure, soil, and polluted waters. P. mirabilis, once attached to the urinary tract, infects the kidney more commonly than E. coli. P. mirabilis is often found as a free-living organism in soil and water. About 10–15% of kidney stones are struvite stones, caused by alkalinization of the urine by the action of the urease enzyme (which splits urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide) of Proteus (and other) bacterial species.

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072] Straight rods, 0.4–0.8 × 1.0–3.0 μm. Gram negative. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains swarm with periodic cycles of migration producing concentric zones, or spread in a uniform film, over moist surfaces solidified with agar or gelatin. The organisms in this genus conform to the definition of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are facultatively anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic, having both a respiratory and a fermentative type of metabolism. Optimal growth temperature is 37°C. Oxidase negative; catalase positive. Methyl red positive; species vary in indole production, Voges–Proskauer, and Simmons citrate tests. They oxidatively deaminate phenylalanine and tryptophan. Urea is hydrolyzed. Lysine decarboxylase negative and arginine dihydrolase negative; only Proteus mirabilis decarboxylates ornithine. All but Proteus myxofaciens decompose tyrosine to produce a clearing on agar media in which the insoluble amino acid is incorporated. Grow on KCN. H2S is usually produced. Malonate is not utilized. d-glucose and a few other carbohydrates are catabolized with production of acid and usually gas. Does not produce acid from inositol or from straight chain tetra-, penta-, or hexahydroxy—alcohols, but generally produces acid from glycerol. One or more species ferment maltose, sucrose, trehalose, and d-xylose. Human pathogens, causing urinary tract infections; also are secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body. Occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals; also occurs in manure, soil, and polluted waters. P. myxofaciens has been isolated only from gypsy moth larvae. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, Proteus belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae within the Proteobacteria (Woese et al., 1985; Niebel et al., 1987; Stackebrandt et al., 1988).

The mol% G + C of the DNA is: 38–41 (Falkow et al., 1962).

Type species: Proteus vulgaris



Microbial Abundance Data: Proteus
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.001 %
(0.010)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Aminobenzoate degradation
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Caprolactam degradation
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Ether lipid metabolism
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Flagellar assembly
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Secondary bile acid biosynthesis
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
  • Paromomycin (aph3ia)
  • Neomycin (aph3ia)
  • Kanamycin (aph3ia)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3ia)
  • Lividomycin (aph3ia)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3ia)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa10)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa10)
  • Cephamycin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Cephalosporin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Ceftriaxone (bl1_cmy2)
  • Cefoxitin (bl1_cmy2)
  • Carbapenem (bl1_cmy2)
  • Ceftazidime (bl1_cmy2)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrb)
  • Sulfonamide (sul1)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra1)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_veb)
  • Penicillin (bl2_veb)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata4)
  • Carbenicillin (bl2c_bro)
  • Penicillin (bl2c_bro)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrs)
  • Spectinomycin (ant3ia)
  • Streptomycin (ant3ia)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2b_tem2)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem2)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2b_tem2)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_vim)
  • Cephalosporin (bl3_vim)
  • Penicillin (bl3_vim)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_vim)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin iii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Ceftazidime (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosproin (bl2e_fpm)
  • Tobramycin (ant2ia)
  • Sisomicin (ant2ia)
  • Kanamycin (ant2ia)
  • Gentamicin (ant2ia)
  • Dibekacin (ant2ia)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2b_tem)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem)
  • Carbenicillin (bl2c_pse1)
  • Penicillin (bl2c_pse1)
  • Tetracycline (tetj)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata14)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnra)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra15)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2b_tem1)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem1)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2b_tem1)
  • BIOFILM FORMERS   COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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