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Serratia

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Enterobacteriales -> Enterobacteriaceae -> Serratia

OVERVIEW:

Serratia is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The most common species in the genus, S. marcescens, is normally the only pathogen and usually causes nosocomial infections. However, rare strains of S. plymuthica, S. liquefaciens, S. rubidaea, and S. odoriferae have caused diseases through infection. Members of this genus produce characteristic red pigment, prodigiosin, and can be distinguished from other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family by their unique production of three enzymes: DNase, lipase, and gelatinase. In the hospital, Serratia species tend to colonize the respiratory and urinary tracts, rather than the gastrointestinal tract, in adults. Serratia infection is responsible for about 2% of nosocomial infections of the bloodstream, lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, surgical wounds, and skin and soft tissues in adult patients. Outbreaks of S. marcescens meningitis, wound infections, and arthritis have occurred in pediatric wards. Cases of Serratia arthritis have been reported in outpatients receiving intra-articular injections.

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]

Straight rods, 0.5–0.8 × 0.9–2.0 µm in length, with rounded ends. Conform to the general definition of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Gram negative, generally motile, by means of peritrichous flagella. Facultatively anaerobic. Nitrate and chlorate are reduced anaerobically. Growth factors are generally not required. Colonies on nutrient agar are most often opaque, somewhat iridescent, and either white, pink, or red in color. Almost all strains can grow at temperatures between 10 and 36°C, at pH 5–9, and in the presence of 0–4% (w/v) NaCl. The catalase reaction is strongly positive. d-Glucose is fermented through the Embden–Meyerhof pathway. The major glucose entry route involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system with both enzyme IIGlc (glucose permease) and enzyme IIMan (mannose permease). Glucose is also oxidized to gluconate in the presence of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Gluconate is oxidized to 2-ketogluconate. Acetoin is produced from pyruvate by all species except S. fonticola. Fructose, d-galactose, maltose, d-mannitol, d-mannose, ribose, and trehalose are fermented and utilized as sole carbon sources. l-fucose is fermented and utilized as sole carbon source by all species except S. fonticola. l-sorbose is not fermented or utilized as sole carbon source. All species but S. fonticola fail to ferment or utilize dulcitol and tagatose. N-acetylglucosamine, d-alanine, l-alanine, citrate, d-galacturonate, d-glucosamine, d-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, l-proline, putrescine, l-serine are utilized as sole carbon sources by most strains. Caprate, caproate, caprylate, and tyrosine are utilized as sole carbon sources by all species except S. fonticola. 5-Aminovalerate, butyrate, m-coumarate, ethanolamine and tryptamine are not utilized as sole carbon sources. All species except S. fonticola fail to utilize 3-phenylpropionate. All species except S. entomophila fail to utilize itaconate. Phenylalanine, histidine, and tryptophan deaminases and thiosulfate reductase (H2S from thiosulfate) are not produced. o-Nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG) is hydrolyzed by most strains. Esculin is hydrolyzed by most strains except S. proteamaculans subsp. quinovora. Extracellular enzymes of all species except S. fonticola hydrolyze DNA, lipids (tributyrin, corn oil) and proteins (gelatin, casein), but not starch (in four days), polygalacturonic acid, or pectin. Tween-80 is hydrolyzed by all species except S. odorifera. The organisms occur in the natural environment (soil, water, plant surfaces) or as opportunistic human pathogens.

The mol % G + C of the DNA is: 52–60.

Type species: Serratia marcescens



Microbial Abundance Data: Serratia
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.000 %
(0.001)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.001 %
(0.004)
0.001 %
(0.008)
0.000 %
(0.002)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.001 %
(0.009)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
0.000 %
(0.000)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   
  • Aminoglycoside (acrb)
  • Glycylcycline (acrb)
  • Macrolide (acrb)
  • Beta lactam (acrb)
  • Acriflavin (acrb)
  • Chloramphenicol (cml_e1)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata1)
  • Paromomycin (aph3ia)
  • Neomycin (aph3ia)
  • Kanamycin (aph3ia)
  • Ribostamycin (aph3ia)
  • Lividomycin (aph3ia)
  • Gentamincin b (aph3ia)
  • Fluoroquinolone (qnrb)
  • Fosmidomycin (rosa)
  • Astromicin (aac3ia)
  • Sisomicin (aac3ia)
  • Gentamicin (aac3ia)
  • Fosmidomycin (rosb)
  • Fosfomycin (fosa)
  • Cephalosproin (bl1_sm)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra12)
  • Spectinomycin (ant3ia)
  • Streptomycin (ant3ia)
  • Tetracycline (tetc)
  • Tobramycin (aac6ib)
  • Netilmicin (aac6ib)
  • Isepamicin (aac6ib)
  • Amikacin (aac6ib)
  • Sisomicin (aac6ib)
  • Dibekacin (aac6ib)
  • Cephamycin (bl2_kpc)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2_kpc)
  • Penicillin (bl2_kpc)
  • Carbapenem (bl2_kpc)
  • Tobramycin (ant2ia)
  • Sisomicin (ant2ia)
  • Kanamycin (ant2ia)
  • Gentamicin (ant2ia)
  • Dibekacin (ant2ia)
  • Bacitracin (baca)
  • Deoxycholate (mdtg)
  • Fosfomycin (mdtg)
  • Cephalosproin (bl2f_sme1)
  • Penicillin (bl2f_sme1)
  • Carbapenem (bl2f_sme1)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra1)
  • Kasugamycin (ksga)
  • Tobramycin (aac3iib)
  • Netilmicin (aac3iib)
  • Sisomicin (aac3iib)
  • Gentamicin (aac3iib)
  • Dibekacin (aac3iib)
  • Tetracycline (tetb)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_vim)
  • Cephalosporin (bl3_vim)
  • Penicillin (bl3_vim)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_vim)
  • Monobactam (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin iii (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Penicillin (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Ceftazidime (bl2be_ctxm)
  • Trimethoprim (dfra17)
  • Cloxacillin (bl2d_oxa1)
  • Penicillin (bl2d_oxa1)
  • Cephalosporin (bl2b_tem)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem)
  • Tobramycin (aac6ic)
  • Netilmicin (aac6ic)
  • Isepamicin (aac6ic)
  • Amikacin (aac6ic)
  • Sisomicin (aac6ic)
  • Dibekacin (aac6ic)
  • Cephalosproin (bl3_imp)
  • Cephamycin (bl3_imp)
  • Penicillin (bl3_imp)
  • Carbapenem (bl3_imp)
  • Cephalosporin ii (bl2b_tem1)
  • Penicillin (bl2b_tem1)
  • Cephalosporin i (bl2b_tem1)
  • Chloramphenicol (catb3)
  • BIOFILM FORMERS   COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

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