SUBSTRATA MAIN PAGE


Actinobacillus

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Pasteurellales -> Pasteurellaceae -> Actinobacillus

OVERVIEW:

'Actinobacillus' is a genus of Gram-negative, immotile and nonspore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites or pathogens in mammals, birds, and reptiles. It is a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. The bacteria are facultatively aerobic or anaerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates (without production of gas), and of reducing nitrates. The genomic DNA contains between 40 and 47 mol % guanine plus cytosine. Actinobacillus (Pasteurella) ureae and A. hominis occur in the respiratory tracts of healthy humans and may be involved in the pathogenesis of sinusitis, bronchopneumonia, and meningitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans occurs in the human oral microflora, and together with anaerobic or capnophilic organisms (HACEK group organisms) may cause endocarditis. Actinobacilli are susceptible to most antibiotics of the beta-lactam family, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and many other antibacterial chemotherapeutics. An analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans indicated it was monophyletic with Haemophilus aphrophilus and H. segnis, and it was proposed that they be reclassified as a new genus, Aggregatibacter (from the Latin, 'aggregare', meaning 'to come together'). 

Cells, measuring 0.4 ± 0.1 × 1.0 ± 0.4 µm, are spherical, oval, or rod-shaped (Phillips, 1984). Most often bacillary but sometimes interspersed with coccal elements that may lie at the pole of a larger form, producing the characteristic “Morse-code” form. Cell forms up to 6 µm in length may appear when grown on media containing glucose or maltose. Cells are single or arranged in pairs or, more rarely, in chains. Endospores are not formed. Gram negative, but staining is irregular. Not acid fast. India ink may demonstrate small amounts of extracellular slime in wet preparations. Nonmotile. Organisms are aerobic, microaerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or chemoorganotrophic, having both respiratory and fermentative types of metabolism. After growth for 24 h on blood agar, translucent colonies, usually 1–2 mm in diameter appear. Surface colonies have low viability and may die in 2–7 days. Growth may be very sticky upon primary cultivation, making it difficult to remove colonies completely from the agar surface. Optimum growth temperature is 37°C. Temperature range for growth is 25–42°C.

The mol% G + C of the DNA is: 35.5–46.9.

Type species: Actinobacillus lignieresii

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]



Microbial Abundance Data: Actinobacillus
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
1.108 %
(2.090)
0.833 %
(1.169)
1.854 %
(3.942)
0.637 %
(1.160)
0.514 %
(0.847)
0.461 %
(1.008)
0.673 %
(1.240)
0.278 %
(0.361)
0.644 %
(0.781)
0.312 %
(0.540)
0.352 %
(0.597)
0.272 %
(0.482)
0.001 %
(0.009)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
INTERACTIONS
KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Bacterial chemotaxis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Caprolactam degradation
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Geraniol degradation
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Limonene and pinene degradation
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Nitrotoluene degradation
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • Quorum sensing00253
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES
  • D-Glucose
  • D-Maltose

  • ENDPRODUCTS
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   BIOFILM FORMERS   
    COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

    SUBSTRATA ™ IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK ® OF DATAPUNK BIOINFORMATICS, LLC. COPYRIGHT © 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.    |    DEVELOPER BLOG     |