SUBSTRATA MAIN PAGE


Bacteroides

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group -> Bacteroidetes -> Bacteroidia -> Bacteroidales -> Bacteroidaceae -> Bacteroides

OVERVIEW:

Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria. Bacteroides species are non-endospore-forming bacilli, and may be either motile or non-motile, depending on the species. The DNA base composition is 40-48% GC. Unusual in bacterial organisms, Bacteroides membranes contain sphingolipids. They also contain meso-diaminopimelic acidin their peptidoglycan layer.Bacteroides are normally mutualistic, making up the most substantial portion of the mammalian gastrointestinal flora, where they play a fundamental role in processing of complex molecules to simpler ones in the host intestine. As many as 1010-1011 cells per gram of human feces have been reported. They can use simple sugars when available; however, the main sources of energy for Bacteroides species in the gut are complex host-derived and plant glycans. Studies indicate that long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition - those who eat plenty of protein and animal fats have predominantly Bacteroides bacteria, while for those who consume more carbohydrates the Prevotella species dominate.One of the most important clinically is Bacteroides fragilis.Bacteroides species also benefit their host by excluding potential pathogens from colonizing the gut. Some species (B. fragilis, for example) are opportunistic human pathogens, causing infections of the peritoneal cavity, gastrointestinal surgery, and appendicitis via abscess formation, inhibiting phagocytosis, and inactivating beta-lactam antibiotics. Although Bacteroides species are anaerobic, they are transiently aerotolerant and thus can survive in the abdominal cavity.In general, Bacteroides are resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics — β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and recently many species have acquired resistance to erythromycin andtetracycline. This high level of antibiotic resistance has prompted concerns that Bacteroides species may become a reservoir for resistance in other, more highly pathogenic bacterial strains.There are data suggesting that members of Bacteroides affects the lean or obese phenotype in humans. In this article, one human twin is obese while the other is lean. Their fecal microbiota is transplanted into germ-free mouse and, interestingly, the phenotype in mouse-model corresponds to that in human. Bacteroides play a key role in helping us digest the vegetable and whole-grain components of a lean, low-fat diet. As they don't break down fats well, Bacteroides are found more in people following low-fat diets. These bugs also break complex sugars down into simpler more digestible ones - possibly to the detriment of diabetics, who seem to harbor more of these bugs than does the general populace. A lower ratio of Bacteroides to Prevotella is reputed to identify the type 2 'enterotype.' [PMC 3728647] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity associates with gut dysbiosis and a shift in metabolic function of the gut microbiota. One study identified Bacteroides as independently associated with NASH and Ruminococcus with significant fibrosis. [PMID: 26600078 ] Clindamycin treatment affected gut Bacteroides up to two years following cessation of treatment. Similarly, three individuals with dyspepsia given one week of metronidazole, clarithromycin, and omeprazole had a state shift that persisted up to four years without additional antibiotic treatment. [PMC 3577372]

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]



Microbial Abundance Data: Bacteroides
(Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087])
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1 Avg
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Group 2 Avg
Throat
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Group 3 Avg
Supragingival
Plaque
Subgingival
Plaque
Stool
0.234 %
(1.278)
0.198 %
(1.072)
0.066 %
(0.546)
0.437 %
(2.217)
0.149 %
(0.510)
0.273 %
(1.026)
0.069 %
(0.229)
0.020 %
(0.040)
0.236 %
(0.743)
0.066 %
(0.480)
0.011 %
(0.024)
0.122 %
(0.936)
47.821 %
(23.591)
TAGS
Keystone
Core species
Type species
Pathogen
Dysbiosis associated
Flora/ commensal
Gut associated
Probiotic
Leanness
Obesity
Skin microbiome
Fecal distribution
Oral microbiome
Vaginal microbiome
Butyrate producer
Catalase producer
Histamine producer
Food fermenter
Amylolytic
Propionate producer
Nitrifying
Biofilm producer
DESCENDANTS
  • Bacteroides acidifaciens
  • Bacteroides barnesiae
  • Bacteroides caccae
  • Bacteroides caecicola
  • Bacteroides caecigallinarum
  • Bacteroides cellulosilyticus
  • Bacteroides chinchillae
  • Bacteroides clarus
  • Bacteroides coprocola
  • Bacteroides coprophilus
  • Bacteroides coprosuis
  • Bacteroides denticanum
  • Bacteroides dorei
  • Bacteroides eggerthii
  • Bacteroides faecichinchillae
  • Bacteroides faecis
  • Bacteroides finegoldii
  • Bacteroides fluxus
  • Bacteroides fragilis
  • Bacteroides galacturonicus
  • Bacteroides gallinaceum
  • Bacteroides gallinarum
  • Bacteroides graminisolvens
  • Bacteroides helcogenes
  • Bacteroides heparinolyticus
  • Bacteroides intestinalis
  • Bacteroides luti
  • Bacteroides massiliensis
  • Bacteroides nordii
  • Bacteroides oleiciplenus
  • Bacteroides ovatus
  • Bacteroides paurosaccharolyticus
  • Bacteroides plebeius
  • Bacteroides propionicifaciens
  • Bacteroides pyogenes
  • Bacteroides reticulotermitis
  • Bacteroides rodentium
  • Bacteroides salanitronis
  • Bacteroides salyersiae
  • Bacteroides sartorii
  • Bacteroides sp.
  • Bacteroides sp. 'Smarlab BioMol-2301151'
  • Bacteroides sp. 14(A)
  • Bacteroides sp. 1_1_14
  • Bacteroides sp. 2011_Ileo_VSA_D11
  • Bacteroides sp. 2011_Ileo_VSA_D6
  • Bacteroides sp. 2011_Ileo_VSA_D7
  • Bacteroides sp. 2011_Ileo_VSA_D8
  • Bacteroides sp. 2_2_4
  • Bacteroides sp. 31SF15
  • Bacteroides sp. 35AE37
  • Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23
  • Bacteroides sp. 3_1_40A
  • Bacteroides sp. 4072
  • Bacteroides sp. 4_1_36
  • Bacteroides sp. 4_3_47FAA
  • Bacteroides sp. 9_1_42FAA
  • Bacteroides sp. AR20
  • Bacteroides sp. AR29
  • Bacteroides sp. CB57
  • Bacteroides sp. D-2
  • Bacteroides sp. D20
  • Bacteroides sp. D22
  • Bacteroides sp. D8
  • Bacteroides sp. DJF_B097
  • Bacteroides sp. EBA5-17
  • Bacteroides sp. HPS0048
  • Bacteroides sp. J1511
  • Bacteroides sp. R6
  • Bacteroides sp. S-17
  • Bacteroides sp. S-18
  • Bacteroides sp. SLC1-38
  • Bacteroides sp. Smarlab 3301643
  • Bacteroides sp. TP-5
  • Bacteroides sp. WA1
  • Bacteroides sp. WH2
  • Bacteroides sp. WH302
  • Bacteroides sp. XB12B
  • Bacteroides sp. XB44A
  • Bacteroides sp. dnLKV2
  • Bacteroides sp. dnLKV3
  • Bacteroides sp. dnLKV9
  • Bacteroides stercorirosoris
  • Bacteroides stercoris
  • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  • Bacteroides uniformis
  • Bacteroides vulgatus
  • Bacteroides xylanisolvens
  • Bacteroides xylanolyticus
  • Bacteroides zoogleoformans
  • Candidatus Bacteroides periocalifornicus
  • Candidatus Bacteroides timonensis
  • Cluster III of the termite bacteroides symbiont
  • environmental samples
  • INTERACTIONS
    ENHANCES
  • Bacteroidales
  • Bacteroides
  • Odoribacter
  • Peptococcaceae

  • INHIBITS
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Coriobacteriales
  • Adlercreutzia
  • Collinsella
  • Porphyromonas
  • Prevotella
  • Clostridium
  • Clostridiales incertae sedis
  • Clostridiales Family XIII. Incertae Sedis
  • Blautia
  • Coprococcus
  • Dorea
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Ruminococcaceae
  • Ruminococcus
  • Dialister
  • Campylobacteraceae
  • Erysipelotrichaceae

  • ENHANCED BY
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Coriobacteriales
  • Adlercreutzia
  • Collinsella
  • Bacteroidales
  • Bacteroides
  • Porphyromonadaceae
  • Odoribacter
  • Parabacteroides
  • Porphyromonas
  • Prevotella
  • Rikenellaceae
  • Alistipes
  • Turicibacter
  • Streptococcus
  • Clostridiales
  • Catabacteriaceae
  • Clostridium
  • Clostridiales incertae sedis
  • Peptoniphilus
  • Clostridiales Family XIII. Incertae Sedis
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Blautia
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Coprococcus
  • Dorea
  • Eubacterium
  • Lachnobacterium
  • Lachnospira
  • Roseburia
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Peptococcaceae
  • Ruminococcaceae
  • Ruminiclostridium
  • Acetivibrio
  • Eubacterium
  • Faecalibacterium
  • Oscillospira
  • Ruminococcus
  • Acidaminococcus
  • Dialister
  • Phascolarctobacterium
  • Veillonella
  • Rubrivivax
  • Alcaligenaceae
  • Oxalobacter
  • Bilophila
  • Desulfovibrio
  • Campylobacteraceae
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Escherichia
  • Erysipelotrichaceae
  • Erysipelotrichaceae
  • Holdemania
  • Akkermansia
  • KEGG PATHWAYS
  • 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
  • ABC transporters
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Arginine biosynthesis
  • Bacterial secretion system
  • Base excision repair
  • Benzoate degradation
  • Biosynthesis of amino acids
  • Biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics
  • Biotin metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • Butirosin and neomycin biosynthesis
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Carbapenem biosynthesis
  • Carbon metabolism
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
  • Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • D-Alanine metabolism
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • DNA replication
  • Degradation of aromatic compounds
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis
  • Fatty acid degradation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Homologous recombination
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin resistance
  • Lipoic acid metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • Lysine biosynthesis
  • Lysine degradation
  • Metabolic pathways
  • Methane metabolism
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
  • Mismatch repair
  • Monobactam biosynthesis
  • Naphthalene degradation
  • Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Other glycan degradation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
  • Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Protein export
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • RNA degradation
  • RNA polymerase
  • Riboflavin metabolism
  • Ribosome
  • Secondary bile acid biosynthesis
  • Selenocompound metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Streptomycin biosynthesis
  • Sulfur metabolism
  • Sulfur relay system
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Thiamine metabolism
  • Two-component system
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • beta-Lactam resistance

  • CLUSTERS WITH
    METABOLOMICS       
    NUTRIENTS/ SUBSTRATES

    ENDPRODUCTS
    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE   BIOFILM FORMERS   
    COGEM PATHOGENICITY   

    SUBSTRATA ™ IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK ® OF DATAPUNK BIOINFORMATICS, LLC. COPYRIGHT © 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.    |    DEVELOPER BLOG     |