As an ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha is believed to contribute significantly to the global production of nitrous oxide, a product of nitrite reduction. Nitrosomonas eutropha is not known to have any pathogenic qualities.
COGEM released a comprehensive database of pathogenicity assessment of around 2575 bacterial species in 2011. The database ranks the pathogenicity of species on a scale of 1 to 4. Nitrosomonas eutropha ranks on this scale: