Propionate


A propionic or propanoic compound is a small salt or ester of propionic acid. In these compounds, propionate is often written in shorthand, as CH3CH2CO2 or simply EtCO2. Serum propionate was significantly higher with ingestion of L-rhamnose than with that of lactulose or glucose (P < 0.001). [PMID: 15213033] The human skin is host of several species of bacteria known as Propionibacteria, which are named after their ability to produce propionic acid. The most notable one is the Propionibacterium acnes, which lives mainly in the sebaceous glands of the skin and is one of the principal causes of acne.Propionic acid is produced biologically as its coenzyme A ester, propionyl-CoA, from the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids containing odd numbers of carbon atoms, and also from the breakdown of some amino acids. Bacteria of the genus Propionibacterium produce propionic acid as the end-product of their anaerobic metabolism. This class of bacteria is commonly found in the stomachs of ruminants and the sweat glands of humans, and their activity is partially responsible for the odor of both Swiss cheese and sweat. It is also biosynthesized in the large intestine of humans by bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre. Activates GPR41 and GPR43. Upregulates GLP-1, PYY, leptin. Increases oxidative stress, alters phospholipid composition, induces inflammation in the brain. Anti-inflammatory. Anti-cancer Anti-lipogenic. Improves insulin sensitivity. Increases energy expenditure. Increases satiety. Associated with autistic spectrum disorder. [PMID: 27102537]



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