Campylobacter jejuniRANK: Species
TAXONOMY: Proteobacteria -> delta/epsilon subdivisions -> Epsilonproteobacteria -> Campylobacterales -> Campylobacteraceae -> Campylobacter -> Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacterium commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic. This species of pathogenic bacteria is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. Food poisoning caused by Campylobacter species can be severely debilitating, but is rarely life-threatening. It has been linked with subsequent development of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), which usually develops two to three weeks after the initial illness. Infection with C. jejuni usually results in enteritis, which is characterised by abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and malaise. The onset of symptoms is usually 2-5 days. The symptoms usually persist for between 24 hours and a week, but may be longer. Diarrhea can vary in severity from loose stools to bloody stools. Dehydration is a common concern. Many fluids and electrolytes are lost through vomiting and diarrhea. Dehydration is very common in the young as well as in the elderly. People who are taking diuretics are also at risk for dehydration. Caffeine should be avoided as this increases urine output. The use of probiotics is recommended in order to maintain healthy bacteria within the digestive system. The disease is usually self-limiting. However, it does respond to antibiotics. Severe (accompanying fevers, blood in stools) or prolonged cases may require erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or norfloxacin. Fluid and electrolyte replacement may be required for serious cases.
This species has been identified as a resident in the human gastrointestinal tract based on the phylogenetic framework of its small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.[PMC 4262072]