Vibrio parahaemolyticus

RANK: Species

TAXONOMY: Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Vibrionales -> Vibrionaceae -> Vibrio -> Vibrio harveyi group -> Vibrio parahaemolyticus


Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a curved, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium found in brackish saltwater, which, when ingested, causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. V. parahaemolyticus is oxidase positive, facultatively aerobic, and does not form spores. Like other members of the genus Vibrio, this species is motile, with a single, polar flagellum. While infection can occur by the fecal-oral route, ingestion of bacteria in raw or undercooked seafood, usually oysters, is the predominant cause the acute gastroenteritis caused by V. parahaemolyticus. Wound infections also occur, but are less common than seafood-borne disease. The disease mechanism of V. parahaemolyticus infections has not been fully elucidated.

Clinical isolates usually possess a pathogenicity island (PAI) on the second chromosome. The PAI can be acquired by horizontal gene transfer and contains genes for several virulence factors. Two fully sequenced variants exist of the V. parahaemolyticus PAI with distinctly different lineages. Each PAI variant contains a genetically-distinct Type III Secretion System (T3SS), which is capable of injecting virulence proteins into host cells to disrupt host cell functions or cause cell death by apoptosis. The two known T3SS variants on V. parahaemolyticus chromosome 2 are known as T3SS2α and T3SS2β. These variants correspond to the two known PAI variants. Aside from the T3SS, two genes encoding well-characterized virulence proteins are typically found on the PAI, the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) and/or the tdh-related hemolysin gene (trh). Strains possessing one or both of these hemolysins exhibit beta-hemolysis on blood agar plates. A distinct correlation seems to exist between presence of tdh, trh, and the two known T3SS variants: observations have shown T3SS2α correlating with tdh+/trh- strains, while T3SS2β correlates with tdh-/trh+ strains. V. parahaemolyticus is lysine decarboxylase (LDC) positive.

This species has been identified as a resident in the human gastrointestinal tract based on the phylogenetic framework of its small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.[PMC 4262072]

Gut associated
Group 36
  • Salmonella enterica
  • Aeromonas hydrophila
  • Vibrio vulnificus
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • Shigella flexneri
  • Group 3
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Streptomyces coelicolor
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Chloroflexus aurantiacus
  • Oceanobacillus iheyensis
  • Mycoplasma capricolum
  • Aeromonas hydrophila
  • Bacillus pumilus
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Bacillus licheniformis
  • Listeria innocua
  • Geobacillus kaustophilus
  • Clostridium novyi
  • Mycoplasma genitalium
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Bacillus halodurans
  • Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Bacillus clausii
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • Lactococcus lactis
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Thermotoga maritima
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Group 20
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
  • Photorhabdus luminescens
  • Vibrio vulnificus
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei
  • Yersinia pestis
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  • Dinoroseobacter shibae
  • Vibrio fischeri
  • Erwinia carotovora
  • Anabaena
  • Chromobacterium violaceum
  • Serratia proteamaculans
  • Bacillus thuringiensis

    Substrates/ Growth Factors
  • L-Lysine
  • Catecholamines

  • Metabolic Endproducts
  • Cadaverine