Lactobacillus

RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Bacilli -> Lactobacillales -> Lactobacillaceae -> Lactobacillus

OVERVIEW:

Lactobacillus, is a genus of Gram-positive facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic rod-shaped bacteria. They are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group. In humans they are part of the vaginal microbiota. Many species in this genus have had their genome sequenced. Lactobacillus is a type of bacteria with multiple different species in the genus. Most Lactobacillus species in humans are considered harmless. Lactobacilli live in the urinary, digestive and genital tracts of humans. Lactobacillus is possibly effective for preventing diarrhea in children, or bacterial vaginal infections. However, it may be possibly ineffective for urinary tract infections, lactose intolerance, and yeast infections.While streptococci family bacteria (e.g. Streptococcus mutans) are the most common cause of tooth decay, other varieties of microbes can also cause dental caries. For example, although usually considered beneficial, some Lactobacillus species have been associated with cases of dental caries. Lactic acid has tooth corroding abilities, and the Lactobacillus count in saliva has been used as a 'caries test' for many years. This is one of the arguments used in support of the use of fluoride in toothpaste. Lactobacilli characteristically cause existing carious lesions to progress, especially those in coronal caries. The issue is, however, complex as recent studies show probiotics can allow beneficial lactobacilli to populate sites on teeth, preventing streptococci pathogens from taking hold and inducing dental decay. The scientific research of Lactobacilli in relation to oral health is a new field and only a few studies and results has been published. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium synthesize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from monosodium glutamate. [PMID: 26598580]

Melatonin treatment increased Akkermansia muciniphila and Lactobacillus in sleep-deprived mice. [PMID: 32564539]

Lactobacilli are catalase negative Gram-positive microorganisms that produce mainly lactic acid as the major metabolic endproduct of carbohydrate fermentation. The most representative species of the genus Lactobacillus are known for their application in food fermentation and specific strains have been recognized as having probiotic properties. The health aspects of the lactobacilli have triggered many researchers to actively screen the many potential sources of these bacteria. As a result, an explosion of new species was observed over the last 15 years, with more than 150 validly named species early 2013. Despite the fact that many earlier described species were transferred to newly created genera (Atopobium, Carnobacterium, Eggerthia, Fructobacillus, Weissella, etc.) the genus remains heterogeneous in terms of phylogenetic and phenotypic markers. The genera Pediococcus and Paralactobacillus are intermingled with Lactobacillus, indicating that a further taxonomic subdivision of the genus is very likely, even necessary. Synonyms : Paralactobacillus

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]


Probiotic
Gut associated
Flora/ commensal
Obesity
Microbial Abundance Data: Lactobacillus
Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087]. Percentages > 1% highlighted.
Buccal
Mucosa
Keratinized
Gingiva
Hard
Palate
Throat
Tonsils
Saliva
Stool
0.018 %
(0.066)
0.004 %
(0.010)
0.052 %
(0.477)
0.155 %
(1.018)
0.014 %
(0.073)
0.035 %
(0.166)
0.016 %
(0.095)
DESCENDANTS
  • Lactobacillus acetotolerans
  • Lactobacillus acidifarinae
  • Lactobacillus acidipiscis
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus agilis
  • Lactobacillus algidus
  • Lactobacillus alimentarius
  • Lactobacillus alvei
  • Lactobacillus alvi
  • Lactobacillus amylolyticus
  • Lactobacillus amylophilus
  • Lactobacillus amylotrophicus
  • Lactobacillus amylovorus
  • Lactobacillus animalis
  • Lactobacillus animata
  • Lactobacillus antri
  • Lactobacillus apinorum
  • Lactobacillus apis
  • Lactobacillus apodemi
  • Lactobacillus aquaticus
  • Lactobacillus aviarius
  • Lactobacillus backii
  • Lactobacillus bifermentans
  • Lactobacillus bombi
  • Lactobacillus bombicola
  • Lactobacillus brantae
  • Lactobacillus brevis
  • Lactobacillus brevisimilis
  • Lactobacillus buchneri
  • Lactobacillus cacaonum
  • Lactobacillus camelliae
  • Lactobacillus capillatus
  • Lactobacillus casei group
  • Lactobacillus catenefornis
  • Lactobacillus ceti
  • Lactobacillus coleohominis
  • Lactobacillus collinoides
  • Lactobacillus composti
  • Lactobacillus concavus
  • Lactobacillus coryniformis
  • Lactobacillus crispatus
  • Lactobacillus crustorum
  • Lactobacillus curieae
  • Lactobacillus curvatus
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii
  • Lactobacillus dextrinicus
  • Lactobacillus diolivorans
  • Lactobacillus equi
  • Lactobacillus equicursoris
  • Lactobacillus equigenerosi
  • Lactobacillus fabifermentans
  • Lactobacillus faecis
  • Lactobacillus faeni
  • Lactobacillus farciminis
  • Lactobacillus farraginis
  • Lactobacillus fermentum
  • Lactobacillus floricola
  • Lactobacillus florum
  • Lactobacillus formosensis
  • Lactobacillus fornicalis
  • Lactobacillus fructivorans
  • Lactobacillus frumenti
  • Lactobacillus fuchuensis
  • Lactobacillus furfuricola
  • Lactobacillus futsaii
  • Lactobacillus gallinarum
  • Lactobacillus gasseri
  • Lactobacillus gastricus
  • Lactobacillus ghanensis
  • Lactobacillus gigeriorum
  • Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans
  • Lactobacillus gorillae
  • Lactobacillus graminis
  • Lactobacillus guizhouensis
  • Lactobacillus halophilus
  • Lactobacillus hammesii
  • Lactobacillus hamsteri
  • Lactobacillus harbinensis
  • Lactobacillus hayakitensis
  • Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis
  • Lactobacillus helsingborgensis
  • Lactobacillus helveticus
  • Lactobacillus herbarum
  • Lactobacillus heterohiochii
  • Lactobacillus hilgardii
  • Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis
  • Lactobacillus hominis
  • Lactobacillus homohiochii
  • Lactobacillus hordei
  • Lactobacillus iatae
  • Lactobacillus iners
  • Lactobacillus ingluviei
  • Lactobacillus insectis
  • Lactobacillus insicii
  • Lactobacillus intermedius
  • Lactobacillus intestinalis
  • Lactobacillus iwatensis
  • Lactobacillus japonicus
  • Lactobacillus jensenii
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii
  • Lactobacillus kalixensis
  • Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens
  • Lactobacillus kefiri
  • Lactobacillus kimbladii
  • Lactobacillus kimchicus
  • Lactobacillus kimchiensis
  • Lactobacillus kisonensis
  • Lactobacillus kitasatonis
  • Lactobacillus koreensis
  • Lactobacillus kullabergensis
  • Lactobacillus kunkeei
  • Lactobacillus larvae
  • Lactobacillus leichmannii
  • Lactobacillus letivazi
  • Lactobacillus lindneri
  • Lactobacillus malefermentans
  • Lactobacillus mali
  • Lactobacillus manihotivorans
  • Lactobacillus mellifer
  • Lactobacillus mellis
  • Lactobacillus melliventris
  • Lactobacillus mindensis
  • Lactobacillus mixtipabuli
  • Lactobacillus mobilis
  • Lactobacillus mucosae
  • Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis
  • Lactobacillus murinus
  • Lactobacillus nagelii
  • Lactobacillus namurensis
  • Lactobacillus nantensis
  • Lactobacillus nasuensis
  • Lactobacillus nenjiangensis
  • Lactobacillus nodensis
  • Lactobacillus odoratitofui
  • Lactobacillus oeni
  • Lactobacillus oligofermentans
  • Lactobacillus oris
  • Lactobacillus oryzae
  • Lactobacillus otakiensis
  • Lactobacillus ozensis
  • Lactobacillus panis
  • Lactobacillus pantheris
  • Lactobacillus parabrevis
  • Lactobacillus parabuchneri
  • Lactobacillus paracasei
  • Lactobacillus paracollinoides
  • Lactobacillus parafarraginis
  • Lactobacillus parakefiri
  • Lactobacillus paralimentarius
  • Lactobacillus paraplantarum
  • Lactobacillus pasteurii
  • Lactobacillus paucivorans
  • Lactobacillus pentosus
  • Lactobacillus perolens
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Lactobacillus pobuzihii
  • Lactobacillus pontis
  • Lactobacillus porcinae
  • Lactobacillus psittaci
  • Lactobacillus rapi
  • Lactobacillus rennanquilfy
  • Lactobacillus rennini
  • Lactobacillus reuteri
  • Lactobacillus reuterii
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus
  • Lactobacillus rodentium
  • Lactobacillus rogosae
  • Lactobacillus rossiae
  • Lactobacillus ruminis
  • Lactobacillus saerimneri
  • Lactobacillus sakei
  • Lactobacillus salivarius
  • Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis
  • Lactobacillus saniviri
  • Lactobacillus satsumensis
  • Lactobacillus secaliphilus
  • Lactobacillus selangorensis
  • Lactobacillus senioris
  • Lactobacillus senmaizukei
  • Lactobacillus sharpeae
  • Lactobacillus shenzhenensis
  • Lactobacillus sicerae
  • Lactobacillus silagei
  • Lactobacillus siliginis
  • Lactobacillus similis
  • Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis
  • Lactobacillus sp.
  • Lactobacillus sp. 66c
  • Lactobacillus sp. 7_1_47FAA
  • Lactobacillus sp. Akhmro1
  • Lactobacillus sp. BL302
  • Lactobacillus sp. C30An8
  • Lactobacillus sp. C4I18
  • Lactobacillus sp. C4I5
  • Lactobacillus sp. CR-609S
  • Lactobacillus sp. NRCT-KU 1
  • Lactobacillus sp. S16
  • Lactobacillus sp. TAB-22
  • Lactobacillus sp. TAB-26
  • Lactobacillus sp. TAB-30
  • Lactobacillus sp. Thmro2
  • Lactobacillus sp. oral taxon 052
  • Lactobacillus sp. oral taxon 461
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A18
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A21
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A25
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A29
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A35
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A44
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A45
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A48
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A49
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A85
  • Lactobacillus sp.A A96
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A100
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A101
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A102
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A103
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A12
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A13
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A14
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A16
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A19
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A20
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A23
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A31
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A33
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A34
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A36
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A37
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A41
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A42
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A52
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A53
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A64
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A65
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A76
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A78
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A81
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A86
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A87
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A89
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A90
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A91
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A95
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A97
  • Lactobacillus sp.B A98
  • Lactobacillus sp.B AB1
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG1
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG3
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG53
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG63
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG71
  • Lactobacillus sp.B CG76
  • Lactobacillus spicheri
  • Lactobacillus sucicola
  • Lactobacillus suebicus
  • Lactobacillus sunkii
  • Lactobacillus taiwanensis
  • Lactobacillus thailandensis
  • Lactobacillus tucceti
  • Lactobacillus ultunensis
  • Lactobacillus uvarum
  • Lactobacillus vaccinostercus
  • Lactobacillus vaginalis
  • Lactobacillus vermiforme
  • Lactobacillus versmoldensis
  • Lactobacillus vini
  • Lactobacillus wasatchensis
  • Lactobacillus xiangfangensis
  • Lactobacillus yonginensis
  • Lactobacillus zymae
  • environmental samples
  • INTERACTIONS

    Lactobacillus inhibits growth of
  • Enterococcus
  • Peptoclostridium difficile
  • METABOLOMICS   
    Substrates/ Growth Factors
  • D-Glucose
  • Ellagic acid
  • CO2
  • α-Glucan

  • Metabolic Endproducts
  • γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA)
  • Trimethylamine
  • Lactate
  • Urolithins
  • Lactic acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Acetylcholine

  • Growth Inhibited by
  • Stevia
  • Laminaria hyperborea (curvie)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Magnesium-deficient diet
  • High fat diet
  • Iron supplements [parent]
  • Glyphosphate
  • Sucralose (Splenda)

  • Growth Enhanced By
  • Sesame cake/meal
  • Daesiho-tang (DSHT)
  • Almonds/ almond skins
  • Melatonin
  • Laminaria digitata (oarweed)
  • Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI)
  • Resveratrol
  • Magnesium
  • Navy bean (Cooked)

  • Biotransforms
  • Linolenic acid (CLnA)
  • Linoleic acid (LA)

  • Transform Product
  • 10-Hydroxyoctadecanoate (HYB)
  • Cis-9 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)
  • 10‐Hydroxy‐cis‐12‐octadecenoate (HYA)
  • Trans-11 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA)
  • Cis-9 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA)
  • Trans-11 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)
  • Cis-15 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA)

  • Antibiotic Resistance
  • Lincomycin (lnua)
  • Tetracycline (tetm)
  • Streptogramin b (ermt)
  • Lincosamide (ermt)
  • Macrolide (ermt)
  • Streptogramin b (ermb)
  • Lincosamide (ermb)
  • Macrolide (ermb)
  • Tetracycline (tetw)
  • Streptogramin a (vate)
  • Tetracycline (tets)
  • Chloramphenicol (cata9)