RANK: Genus

TAXONOMY: cellular organisms -> Bacteria -> Proteobacteria -> Gammaproteobacteria -> Pseudomonadales -> Moraxellaceae -> Psychrobacter


Rods or cocci, 0.9–1.3 × 1.5–3.8 µm. Rods can vary in length from extremely short (coccobacilli) to relatively long. For some strains the rods tend to be somewhat swollen. Also observed to grow as cocci or coccobacilli. Nonpigmented. Colonies on heart infusion agar are usually cream-colored, smooth, and opaque. Gram negative; the stain frequently tends to be retained. Nonmotile, and aerobic. Most strains are psychrotrophic; they are able to grow at 5°C, have temperature optima near 20°C, and generally are unable to grow at 35–37°C. Strains able to grow well at 35–37°C usually cannot grow at 5°C. Grow well on most common complex media. Most strains can grow on a mineral-agar medium containing a single carbon and energy source and ammonium salts as the nitrogen source. Some strains form acid aerobically from d-glucose, d-mannose, d-galactose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, and l-rhamnose. They are halotolerant and grow in the presence of 6.5% or greater NaCl. Many strains are radiation resistant. Oxidase positive. Catalase positive. Many strains are competent for natural genetic transformation. Have been isolated from the open sea, the deep sea, sea ice, ornithogenic soils, skins and gills of fish, skins of poultry, various food products, irradiated foods, air contaminants, and from a variety of human sources. Not known to be clinically significant. Cultures of Psychrobacter can be maintained in the same manner as for cultures of Acinetobacter, as described above.The mol% G + C of the DNA is: 41–50.7.Type species: Psychrobacter immobilis

This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]

Gut associated
Microbial Abundance Data: Psychrobacter
Percent of total population with standard deviation [PMID: 22698087]. Percentages > 1% highlighted.
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.001 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
  • Psychrobacter SKNB7
  • Psychrobacter adeliensis
  • Psychrobacter aestuarii
  • Psychrobacter aff. glacinola 4.21
  • Psychrobacter aff. glacinola A1/C-aer/OII
  • Psychrobacter alimentarius
  • Psychrobacter allis
  • Psychrobacter aquaticus
  • Psychrobacter aquimaris
  • Psychrobacter arcticus
  • Psychrobacter arenosus
  • Psychrobacter celer
  • Psychrobacter cibarius
  • Psychrobacter ciconiae
  • Psychrobacter cryohalolentis
  • Psychrobacter faecalis
  • Psychrobacter fozii
  • Psychrobacter frigidicola
  • Psychrobacter fulvigenes
  • Psychrobacter glacialis
  • Psychrobacter glaciei
  • Psychrobacter glacincola
  • Psychrobacter halophilus
  • Psychrobacter immobilis
  • Psychrobacter jeotgali
  • Psychrobacter luti
  • Psychrobacter lutiphocae
  • Psychrobacter marincola
  • Psychrobacter maritimus
  • Psychrobacter meningitidis
  • Psychrobacter muriicola
  • Psychrobacter namhaensis
  • Psychrobacter nivimaris
  • Psychrobacter oceani
  • Psychrobacter okhotskensis
  • Psychrobacter pacificensis
  • Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus
  • Psychrobacter piscatorii
  • Psychrobacter piscidermidis
  • Psychrobacter proteolyticus
  • Psychrobacter psychrophilus
  • Psychrobacter pulmonis
  • Psychrobacter salsus
  • Psychrobacter sanguinis
  • Psychrobacter sp.
  • Psychrobacter sp. m090608c
  • Psychrobacter submarinus
  • Psychrobacter urativorans
  • Psychrobacter vallis
  • environmental samples
  • unclassified Psychrobacter