Lactobacillus plantarum

RANK: Species

TAXONOMY: Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Bacilli -> Lactobacillales -> Lactobacillaceae -> Lactobacillus -> Lactobacillus plantarum


'Lactobacillus plantarum' is a widespread member of the genus Lactobacillus, commonly found in many fermented food products as well as anaerobic plant matter. It is also present in saliva (from which it was first isolated). It has the ability to liquefy gelatin. L. plantarum has one of the largest genomes known among the lactic acid bacteria and is a very flexible and versatile species. L. plantarum is known for its ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The body uses hydrogen peroxide as a defense against bacteria consumed in food, as well as other microorganisms. Research has also found this strain to be effective in helping support immune function in healthy adults. Identified as a constituent of the oral microbiome by Human Oral Microbiome Database. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity. [PMID: 26610803]

L. plantarum showed a potent inhibition against passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by the IgE-antigen complex in mice, inhibiting it by 87.5%. LP (1 × 10(10) CFU/mouse) inhibited histamine-induced scratching behavior by 58.9% compared to the control group. LP significantly inhibited vascular permeability induced by histamine. The inhibitory activity of LP against vascular permeability was in proportion to its inhibition against scratching behavior. LP potently inhibited histamine-induced cytokine production: it (1 × 10(10) CFU per mouse) inhibited IL-4, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression by 88.9%, 88.6%, and 98.9%, respectively. LP also inhibited IgE level increased by histamine by 85.3%. It inhibited histamine-induced the activations of their transcription factors, NF-κB and c-Jun. Based on these findings, LP may improve allergic diseases, such as anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, and pruritus by inhibiting the expression of IgE-switching cytokine IL-4 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α via NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. [PMID: 22210038]

Probiotics can also act as negative regulators of TLRs. Lactobacillus plantarum genomic DNA has been found to inhibit NF-ĸB and TNF-α production. This inhibition was accompanied by the suppression of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, and an increase in IRAK M, a negative regulator of TLR.

This species has been identified as a resident in the human gastrointestinal tract based on the phylogenetic framework of its small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.[PMC 4262072] An increase in VDR expression and a concomitant increase in cathelicidin mRNA in cultured intestinal epithelial cells when treated with Lactobacillus plantarum were seen. [PMC 3144714]

In a study of 111 stressed adults, Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 strain better improved cognitive and memory functions in normal adults (>30 years old), such as basic attention, emotional cognition, and associate learning (P<0.05), as compared to the placebo and young adults (<30 years old). The administration of DR7 enhanced the serotonin pathway, as observed by lowered expressions of plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase accompanied by increased expressions of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-6, while stabilising the dopamine pathway as observed via stabilised expressions of TH and DBH over 12 weeks as compared to the placebo (P<0.05). [PMID: 30882244]

Food fermenter
Gut associated
Oral microbiome

Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits growth of
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Enterococcus
    Group 162
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Group 3
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Streptomyces coelicolor
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Chloroflexus aurantiacus
  • Oceanobacillus iheyensis
  • Mycoplasma capricolum
  • Aeromonas hydrophila
  • Bacillus pumilus
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Bacillus licheniformis
  • Listeria innocua
  • Geobacillus kaustophilus
  • Clostridium novyi
  • Mycoplasma genitalium
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Bacillus halodurans
  • Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Bacillus clausii
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • Lactococcus lactis
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Thermotoga maritima
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Group 7
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Streptococcus thermophilus
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Bacteroides fragilis
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Listeria innocua
  • Corynebacterium jeikeium
  • Lactobacillus sakei
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus sanguinis
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Lactobacillus brevis
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
  • Lactococcus lactis
  • Streptococcus gordonii
  • Staphylococcus haemolyticus
  • Group 2
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  • Lactobacillus salivarius
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Bifidobacterium adolescentis
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Streptococcus thermophilus
  • Oenococcus oeni
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Lactobacillus gasseri
  • Chloroflexus aurantiacus
  • Bacillus pumilus
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Bacillus licheniformis
  • Listeria innocua
  • Lactobacillus sakei
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum
  • Bifidobacterium longum
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii
  • Lactobacillus brevis
  • Lactococcus lactis
  • Streptococcus gordonii
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Substrates/ Growth Factors
  • Ellagic acid [parent]
  • D-Glucose [parent]
  • CO2 [parent]
  • α-Glucan [parent]

  • Metabolic Endproducts
  • Folate
  • Acetylcholine [parent]
  • γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) [parent]
  • Trimethylamine [parent]
  • Lactic acid [parent]
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Urolithins [parent]
  • Lactate [parent]
  • Vitamin B12 [parent]

  • Growth Inhibited by
  • Stevia [parent]
  • Laminaria hyperborea (curvie) [parent]
  • Chemotherapy [parent]
  • Magnesium-deficient diet [parent]
  • Glyphosphate [parent]
  • High fat diet [parent]
  • Sucralose (Splenda) [parent]

  • Growth Enhanced By
  • Sesame cake/meal [parent]
  • Almonds/ almond skins [parent]
  • Navy bean (Cooked) [parent]
  • Magnesium [parent]
  • Daesiho-tang (DSHT) [parent]
  • Resveratrol [parent]
  • Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) [parent]
  • Laminaria digitata (oarweed) [parent]
  • Melatonin [parent]

  • Biotransforms
  • Linoleic acid (LA) [parent]
  • Cyanidin
  • Malvidin
  • Bile salts
  • Linoleic acid (LA)
  • Aluminium
  • Linolenic acid (CLnA) [parent]
  • Pelargonidin

  • Transform Product
  • 10‐Hydroxy‐cis‐12‐octadecenoate (HYA) [parent]
  • 10‐Hydroxy‐cis‐12‐octadecenoate (HYA)
  • Cis-9 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA) [parent]
  • Trans-11 conjugate linoleic acid (CLA) [parent]
  • Cis-15 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA) [parent]
  • 10-Hydroxyoctadecanoate (HYB) [parent]
  • Cis-9 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA) [parent]
  • Trans-11 conjugate linolenic acids (CLnA) [parent]