TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group -> Bacteroidetes -> Bacteroidia -> Bacteroidales -> Prevotellaceae -> Prevotella
Prevotella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteroides melaninogenicus has been reclassified and split into Prevotella melaninogenica and Prevotella intermedia. Prevotella spp. are members of the oral and vaginal flora, and are recovered from anaerobic infections of the respiratory tract. These infections include aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary empyema, and chronic otitis media and sinusitis. They have been isolated from abscesses and burns in the vicinity of the mouth, bites, paronychia, urinary tract infection, brain abscesses, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Prevotella spp. predominate in periodontal disease and periodontal abscesses. In a study of gut bacteria of children in Burkina Faso (in Africa), Prevotella made up 53% of the gut bacteria, but were absent in age-matched European children. Studies also indicate that long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition—those who eat plenty of protein and animal fats typical of Western diet have predominantly Bacteroides bacteria, while for those who consume more carbohydrates, especially fibre, the Prevotella species dominate. P. copri is possibly connected to rheumatoid arthritis. A recent study on Prevotella derived from humans compared the gene repertoires of its species derived from different body sites of human. It also reported an open pan- genome showing vast diversity of gene pool. A lower ratio of Bacteroides to Prevotella is reputed to identify the type 2 'enterotype.' [PMC 3728647] Prevotella were enriched in children with a high-fiber diet in a rural African village of Burkina Faso and in children and adults in Malawi and Venezuelan populations with diets dominated by maize-, cassava-, and other plant-derived polysaccharides. [PMID 20679230]
Short rods. Nonsporeforming. Nonmotile. Gram-stain-negative. Anaerobic. Moderately saccharolytic. Growth is inhibited by 20% bile. Succinic and acetic acids are the major metabolic end products in peptone-yeast extract-glucose (PYG) broth, but lower levels of other short-chain acids may be produced. Malate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase are present, but glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase are absent. Sphingolipids are produced. The nonhydroxylated long-chain fatty acids are primarily of the straight-chain saturated and monounsaturated types; methyl branched fatty acids are either absent or present in small amounts. Porphyrins are produced by pigmented species, while menaquinones are the sole respiratory quinones found in all species so far studied. Diaminopimelic acid is the only dibasic amino acid in the peptidoglycan (Miyagawa et al., 1981). Neither heptose nor 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid has so far been reported (Hofstad, 1974). The primary site of isolation is the oral cavity, but more recently species have been reported from the intestinal tract of man and animals.DNA G+C content (mol%) of most species: 40–52. Type species: Prevotella melaninogenica
A recent report on Hmong and Korean individuals living in Thailand and the Unites States found that US immigration results in loss of gut microbiome diversity, displacement of native Prevotella strains with Bacteroidies strains, and loss of bacterial enzymes associated with plant fiber degradation. [The ISME Journal. 2020 Jul;14(7):1639-1650].
Next generation sequencing of fecal samples from Japanese and Indian adults revealed differential patterns of bacterial and fungal composition. In particular, Indians, who consume more plant polysaccharides than Japanese, harbored increased numbers of Prevotella and Candida. Candida spp. showed strong growth responses to the plant polysaccharide arabinoxylan in vitro. Furthermore, the culture supernatants of Candida spp. grown with arabinoxylan promoted rapid proliferation of Prevotella copri. Arabinose was identified as a potential growth-inducing factor in the Candida culture supernatants. [PMID: 31885873] [PMCID: PMC6925221]
We observed significant differences in the intestinal bacterial composition that could be solely caused by the presence of blood in stools. More precisely, we identified 12 bacterial species showing significant differences in abundance between both our study groups. These species, Bacteroides uniformis, Collinsella aerofaciens, Eggerthella lenta and Clostridium symbiosum demonstrated increased abundance in the presence of blood. In contrast, the species Prevotella copri, Coprococcus eutactus and Coprococcus catus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia faecis, Blautia obeum, Gemmiger formicilis and Clostridium celatum showed decreased abundance in patients with blood in their stools. [PMID: 32126968] [PMCID: PMC7055051]
This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072]