TAXONOMY: Bacteria -> Terrabacteria group -> Firmicutes -> Clostridia -> Clostridiales -> Lachnospiraceae -> Roseburia
A genus of butyrate-producing, Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that inhabit the human colon. Named in honor of Theodor Rosebury, they are members of the phylum firmicutes. Increased abundance of Roseburia is associated with weight loss and reduced glucose intolerance. Roseburia favors and loves starches that escape small intestinal degradation and RS3, cooked-cooled starches. R. intestinalis works synergistically often with Bifidobacteria. On very low carbohydrate diets, Roseburia drops along with starch intakes. What is most bothersome is that butyrate dips 4-fold as well. Chitin and beta-glucan encourage Roseburia (as does low dose RS2, green banana flour or RPS) A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Roseburia residing in our gut microbiomes help us to digest the complex carbohydrates found in whole grains. As a byproduct of that digestion, these beneficial bacteria release the short chain fatty acid butyrate which may act as an anti-inflammatory and prevent colon cancer.
Slightly curved, rod-shaped cells (0.5 × 1.5–5 µm) occur singly and in (dividing) pairs. Nonsporulating. Gram-negative to Gram-variable staining reaction. Taxonomically grouped within cluster XIVa of the Clostridium subphylum on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence (see below). Actively motile at 37 °C by means of multiple flagella inserted along the concave side and occasionally along one end of the cell. The flagella appear as a subterminal bundle when cells are examined by scanning electron microscopy or phase-contrast light microscopy (Figure 168). Strictly anaerobic. Chemo-organotrophic. Uses the carbohydrates d-glucose, cellobiose, d-maltose, d-raffinose, sucrose, and d-xylose as carbon and energy sources. Hydrolyzes and ferments starch. Grows in anaerobically prepared media containing volatile fatty acids, yeast extract, trypticase peptone, inorganic salts, hemin, glucose, and vitamins, beneath 95% N2/5% CO2 or 100% CO2 atmosphere. Produces H2, CO2, and large amounts of butyrate from fermentation of glucose and acetate. May produce lactate, formate, and trace amounts of ethanol. Consumes acetate, which may be stimulatory during growth on carbohydrates. Indigenous to mammalian intestinal tract. Catalase-negative. Isolated from mouse cecal mucosa and from human feces. Uncultured bacteria with partial 16S rDNA sequences 95–97% similar to those of Roseburia (GenBank nos AJ312385 and L14676) have been detected in 16S rDNA analyses of swine gastrointestinal tract samples (Leser et al., 2002) and adult human fecal samples (Hold et al., 2002). Two species of Roseburia have been characterized. They can be differentiated by characteristics given in Table 171. DNA G+C content (mol%): 29–42% (Tm). Type species: Roseburia cecicola
We found that high alcohol consumption is strongly associated with a reduced abundance of Roseburia intestinalis without showing any association with significant heritability in humans. Moreover, our validation of the decreased abundance of Roseburia spp. in the alcoholic fatty liver disease patients strongly supported their reliability as a microbiological marker. [PMID: 31866426]
This genus contains microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. [PMC 4262072] Decreased in metabolic disorders.